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21W.747 2002秋季課程:修辭學(Rhetoric, Fall 2002)


本頁翻譯進度

燈號說明

審定:無
翻譯:洪久媄(簡介並寄信)
編輯:陳宇琦(簡介並寄信)

Photograph of a microphone.
上圖為一支麥克風(圖片提供:美國國會圖書館)
Photograph of a microphone. (Image courtesy of Library of Congress.)

課程重點

本課程提供詳盡的論說文寫作指導要則,參考資料置於「研習資料區」,「相關資源區」內則提供豐富的網路資源。

This course features a detailed set of general guidelines to writing persuasive essays, located in the study materials section, and an extensive list of web resources, located in the related resources section.

課程描述

21W.747簡介

修辭學為說服他人之利器。本課程旨在介紹修辭學之歷史淵源、相關理論、實際應用,以及潛在影響(包括社會及倫理方面);本學期中將透過反覆練習,琢磨學生的多項技巧,包含解析技巧、批判思考技巧、論說文寫作技巧、以及口頭報告技巧。學習過程中,學生必須同時扮演「修辭學應用者」(使用修辭學的人)及「修辭學家」(鑽研修辭技巧的人)的角色。
修辭學向來的目標就是培養積極活躍的公民,而修辭學應用者的寫作目的,就是要影響這個真實世界,成為積極改變的動力,因此本課程(21W.747)有一項可自由選擇的重點內容,即「服務學習」:學生可自由選擇是否至關注社會議題的非營利團體服務,或者是為其撰寫文章;服務學習在整個學期間約需投入20至30個小時的心力,學生若選擇參與服務學習,其為非營利團體撰寫的文章,可替代「指定作業四」的論文寫作,或者可將他們在團體中得到的經驗,當成其中一篇論文寫作的主要參考資料,該經驗更可作為期末即席演講的依據(如此便可縮減研究的時間)。

什麼是修辭學?

話要說得巧又好,就得靠修辭學;修辭學深究如何有效溝通及說服他人;研讀修辭學既能學到怎麼寫出令人信服的文章,又能助我們洞悉他人運用修辭學的用心;一旦通曉修辭學,我們就能辨別誰對議題的見解最精準、最實用、甚或最正確,那是因為修辭學引領我們視穿說服的技巧,直觸見解的核心。而且與人意見相左時,修辭學最能夠幫我們瞭解對方的推論和論點。更甚者,透過修辭學來探究自身的論點及文化背景,我們的立論及理念會更深化精鍊。簡而言之,修辭學讓我們瞭解自身立論的侷限,發掘有效駁斥對手的方法,更能為自身的理念雄辯滔滔。
修辭學若發揮到極致,可為意念良善人士的利器,用來對其社群有力而適切地提出建言;修辭學若遭濫用,會被拿來操控群眾,而非鼓舞人心;拿來散播宣傳,而非追求真理;拿來大力美化其理念其產品,卻違反群眾的最佳權益。因此,不管是政治過錯的粉飾、不實的廣告、人心的煽動、不肖商人的辯解、還是憎恨的挑起,只要懂得修辭學,我們就能與之相抗衡。欲促進社會積極轉變,合情合理地使用修辭學,不啻為最好的辦法。

Introduction to 21W.747

This course is an introduction to the history, the theory, the practice, and the implications (both social and ethical) of rhetoric, the art and craft of persuasion. This semester, many of your skills will be deepened by practice, including your analytical skills, your critical thinking skills, your persuasive writing skills, and your oral presentation skills. In this course you will act as both a rhetor (a person who uses rhetoric) and a rhetorician (one who studies the art of rhetoric).
Because the study of rhetoric has always had as one of its goals the creation of active and informed citizens and because rhetors write to influence the real world and thus to become agents of positive change, 21W.747 has an optional Service Learning (SL) component: You may elect to write/work for a non-profit organization that deals with some social issue. To offset the 20-30 hours during the semester that the SL option will involve, those who select it will substitute their non-profit writing for essay #4 or use their experiences there as the main source for one of their essays. Further, their experiences may be the basis for their final extemporaneous speech (thus reducing time spent on research).

What is Rhetoric?

Rhetoric is the art and craft of discourse; it is the study and creation of effective communication and persuasion. Studying rhetoric teaches us not only how to write persuasively but also how to understand the rhetorical efforts of others. Understanding rhetoric gives us the means of judging whose opinion about issues is the most accurate, useful, or valid, because such knowledge allows us to see beyond the persuasive techniques to the essence of the opinions. Further, understanding rhetoric is the best way of understanding the assumptions of and the points made by those who disagree with our positions. Further still, understanding rhetoric is the best way for us to deepen and refine our own positions and beliefs by exploring our own assumptions and our cultural contexts. In short, rhetoric teaches us how to find the limits of our own positions, how to argue effectively against others' positions, and how to create powerful and persuasive arguments for our own beliefs.
At its best, rhetoric is used ethically by people of good will who wish to present their ideas forcibly but fairly to their communities. At its worst, however, rhetoric is used unethically by people to manipulate us instead of enlightening us, to spread propaganda instead of seeking truth, to make palatable those ideas and products whose adoption actually runs counter to our best interests. Understanding rhetoric, then, is our best defense against its abusers-- e.g., political "spin doctors," advertisers, demagogues, apologists for immoral business practices, and hate mongers. Using rhetoric in an ethical manner is our best method for becoming agents for positive change in our society.

師資

講師:
Steven Strang 博士

上課時數

教師授課:
每週2節
每節1.5小時

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大學部
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