MIT OpenCourseWare


» 進階搜尋
 課程首頁
 教學大綱
 教學時程
 作業
 研習資料
 相關資源

作業


本頁翻譯進度

燈號說明

審定:無
翻譯:洪久媄(簡介並寄信)
編輯:陳宇琦(簡介並寄信)

寫作

寫作一

預備寫作(Preliminary Writing Assignment, PWA)

分析某一議題。格式請遵循Patti Cohen的那份講義 「法官應該…嗎?」(Should Judges…?) 來寫。請以疑問句的形式來呈現文章標題(仿Cohen的標題)。作業中需涵蓋下列標題:

  • 背景(要瞭解你的正反論點,讀者所需要的背景資料)。
  • 正方論點(請以數字條列)。
  • 正辯方有誰,何以提出其論點。
  • 正辯方應採取的特定行動(請以數字條列)。
  • 反方論點(請以數字條列)。
  • 反辯方有誰,何以提出其論點?
  • 反辯方應採取的特定行動(請條列)。
  • 參考資料(最少6條—每條都要標明是正方還是反方,或是背景資料)—請遵照MLA文件及註解引用的形式。(編按:Modern Language Association,創設於美國的文學組織,擁有龐大文學資料庫並提出人文領域論文之標準寫作格式,包括上述參考書目條列及於文中插入資料來源註解的方式)

註:保留給本課程學生而不流通的多本正反方論點選集已置於圖書館保留室中,且涵蓋多方主題。另外,海頓圖書館 (Hayden Library)的諮詢人員是很豐沛的諮詢資源。別單只是依賴網路資源。

寫作二

服務學習提案

想好好取得服務學習的學分,你的提案必須符合以下標準:

  • 服務提案必須活化且印證課堂中學到的修辭理論、觀念及技巧。換言之,此提案需於寫作或口頭報告中涵蓋修辭學的面向。
  • 提案需對於需要服務的團體必須有實質助益。

你的提案需以列舉方式撰寫,且包含下列標題及資訊:

  • 組織:欲服務之非營利團體名稱
  • 聯絡方式:聯絡人姓名、電話、電子郵件帳號
  • 我要做什麼:詳細寫出你欲提供的服務內容(總計十週,每週你應投注二至三小時的心力)
  • 時程:何時提供何種服務?在這裡你需註明你為非營利團體撰寫文章的起迄時間(或者是分析團體中使用的修辭的論文四的起迄時間)。
  • 與課堂的關連:這個部分是重點。因為你得盡力說服我(譬如說用詳盡的說明),好讓我相信你做的事跟這堂課及修辭學有直接相關。

寫作三

論文一

論文一(一千至二千字,二倍行高,4至8頁,需電腦打字)加上後記

使用你在「預備寫作」(PWA)中所分析討論的議題,撰寫一篇全力辯護式的論文,為你所支持的立場加以辯證。

架構請參考「論證基本要求

你的論文應該:

  • 使用MLA的文內引註模式。
  • 包含「引用書目」。

寫作四

論文二

論文二(一千至二千個電腦打字,二倍行高,4至8頁。)

撰寫一篇說服文,擇一感興趣的重大議題,加以探討,為你的立場辯護。這篇說服文,必須要是下列其中一種論文類別:立場分明式、全力辯護式、或是個人論述式。

寫作五

論文三

論文三(一千至二千字,4至8頁)加上後記。擇一涉及修辭或(及)道德的議題,針對其撰寫一篇說服文。請利用課堂上閱讀過討論過的概念、術語、理論、以及見解,越是鞭辟入裡越好。有相當多主題需要更進一步的研究,這邊有些主題可供參考,若想自行另創主題,我也相當鼓勵

  • 修辭學家Barry Brummett曾說「修辭學與日常生活是如此息息相關,(故)藉由思考何以為修辭學的意義,可以思考何以為人。」不論你是贊同還是反對,請針對此一說法撰寫一篇論文,為你的立場辯護。
  • 結果可以正當化手段嗎?換言之,如果最終目的非常重要,或是出自善意,或有長遠的影響,我們就可以「無所不用其極」嗎?這個問題隱含了不少道德方面的議論。請選擇一項社會議題(如安樂死、戰爭、恐怖主義、墮胎、在廣告或政治中使用修辭等等),或是一項個人或者大學內的議題(如腳踏多條船、醫學院入學考作弊、對父母親撒謊、說「我愛你」的時候言不由衷、檢舉別人作弊),撰寫一篇論文,探討某個「結果正當化手段」的議題(就是說,文章的開頭和結尾要能呼應 「結果/手段」 這個議題,但是文章的主體則要探索你選定的議題)。
  • 為了保障自身安全,我們該犧牲多少個人自由?有好幾個可能的特定議題可供你擇一探討,如限制上網的層級,以防止孩子接觸到色情資訊、製作炸彈的資料、或是墮胎醫生的地址而落入不適當的人的手裡。另一可能的議題為:美國自2001年9月11日恐怖份子攻擊雙子星大樓以來,採取了相關措施(如家園安全計畫、機場的行李安檢及其他檢查、種族資料記錄等等),以此為例,以你的立場來說明,為了保護自身免於恐怖主義,我們該犧牲多少自由?不論你選擇的議題為何,請堅定立場,說服我們你的立場比反方更有根據、更有邏輯、更有實效、更…怎麼樣都好。
  • 科學家還是工程師該受道德限制嗎(有幾個方面,如:人體/動物實驗、(生化)武器發展、超越公司/政府/個人利益、好奇心、職涯發展,直接考量社會責任等等)?
  • 科學家能夠避免使用修辭學嗎?有必要避免嗎?
  • 寬容是種美德嗎?是的話,到什麼限度呢(如果有限度的話)?換言之,對於他人的、其他團體的、他國的冒犯,我們該忍到什麼時候呢?請撰寫一篇文章,闡明你的立場。
  • 假設Gorgias篇說的沒有錯:「語言極有可能控制人類的心智。」那麼,能言善道有什麼潛在的危險嗎?我們的社會應該/可能採取什麼因應方法嗎?好好想一想這個議題,至少要就政治及宣傳這兩方面來思考。(編按:柏拉圖對話錄Gorgias篇,當中蘇格拉底與希臘哲學家Gorgias對話,討論修辭學如何影響人心,及其濫用對政治之不良影響)
  • 我們常認為現代的律師是信奉「詭辯家」的。在清楚詭辯家的思想之後,請閱讀相關雜誌、專業法律期刊、或是法律倫理書籍,並參閱二至三篇有關律師倫理的討論,撰寫一篇論文,表明贊同或是反對律師/詭辯家的立場(反對的話,也或許是贊同柏拉圖的思想?)。
  • 把修辭學的技巧教授給學生,是沒道德的作法嗎?例如教導學生解讀讀者的方法,教導學生如何構思論點,好讓他們能夠去影響特定的讀者,讓讀者所想所感覺所做的跟預設的目標一樣。教授修辭學對於 「真理」的存在(亦或是不存在),有何啟示嗎?撰寫一篇論文來說明辯護你的立場。
  • (自「論文」一書或其他同等精妙的來源)選擇一篇辯證修辭或道德議題的論文或文章-提出你對相同議題的論證,包括分析原文的論點。
  • 或是自由選擇相關之修辭議題及道德議題

寫作六

論文四

論文四(一千至二千個電腦打字,二倍行高,4至8頁。)加上後記

以下有一些主題可供選擇。無論主題為何,請善用學期中在課堂上讀過討論過的觀念、術語、理論、以及見解。

  • 假使你選了服務學習,你的第四篇論文必須是下列三項的其中一項,且需附上一篇詳盡的後記來解釋該文的修辭情境(你的寫作目標、目標讀者的人口統計資料、論文欲刊登於何處),說服目標讀者的修辭策略,以及從為真實世界讀者(非營利團體以及目標讀者)來寫作,在修辭學上得到什麼特別的啟發?
    • 請繳交你為非營利團體所撰寫的寫作(如通訊刊物、小手冊、文章、網頁等等)。
    • 或者撰寫一篇說服文來探討該非營利團體的修辭應用,其中你得要建議該團體怎麼樣能夠加強其對於目標讀者的說服(記得要應用學期中討論過的概念和術語)。
    • 針對那些討論該非營利團體的文章(刊登於雜誌或新聞期刊中的),撰寫一篇說服文來探討其所使用的修辭。
  • 如果你沒有選擇服務學習方案,則必須從「論文」這本書挑選三篇論文,並撰寫一篇說服文來分析解釋這三篇論文的修辭,這三篇論文的主題必須有共通性或者使用相似的修辭策略(課堂中討論過的論文也可選擇)。這樣做的目的是要探討這三篇論文的修辭異同之處以及以其為範本,對修辭學之應用做出一些結論。換句話說,你對這三篇論文的分析和解釋即是用以佐證你的最終結論。你不必侷限於以下所建議的論文或主題,不過你所使用的論文均需出自「論文」一書。
    • 大自然 (可供選用的論文範圍如:Thoreau(梭羅)、Dillard的《鼬鼠般的生活》(Living like Weasels)、 Twain(馬克吐溫)、Emerson(愛默森)、Virginia Woolf(維吉尼亞•吳爾芙) 的《飛蛾之死》 (The Death of the Moth)、Eisely、Darwin(達爾文)、Hoagland(霍格蘭)、Gould。
    • 社交世界(Didion的《婚姻的荒謬》(Marrying Absurd)、Wolfe、Thurber、Rodriguez)。
    • 種族身份(Baldwin 、Douglass、King, Kincaid、Cofer、Staples、Truth、 DuBois、Steele)。
    • 性別 (Carter、Ehrlich、Kingston、Momaday、Cooper、Brownmiller、Quindlen、V. Woolf(維吉尼亞•吳爾芙)的《女性的各行各業》(Professions for Women)。
    • 親子關係(Baldwin 的 《一個土著之子的筆記》(Notes of a Native Son)、卡夫卡(Kafka)、Gates、G. Woolf、Sanders、Ozick、Baker、Lee)。
    • 溝通(Kingston、Orwell的《英語與政治》(Politics and the English Language)、 Tan、Tannen、Lakoff、Wright)。
    • 個人信仰(梭羅(Thoreau)、Brownmiller、Davenport、Donne、Forster、Freud、 Hughes、Silko、White)。
    • 幽默與諷刺 (Barry、Lawrence、Mencken、Swift、Thurber)。
    • 個人聲望之利用(ethos)與其揭露 (書中每篇論文均可)。 (編按:Ethos,亞理斯多得修辭學用語,利用個人聲望達到說服目的之技巧)
    • 動之以情的方法(pathos)應用 (Baldwin、Carter、Didion、Dillard的《天堂地府之趣聞》(Heaven and Earth in Jest)" DuBus、Gordon、Hughes、Kingston、Lopez、Staples、King、G. Woolf)。(編按:Pathos,亞理斯多得修辭學用語,訴諸情感以說服聽眾的技巧)
    • 邏輯之應用 (Auden(奧登)、Brownmiller、Darwin(達爾文)、DuBois、Freud(佛洛依德)、Gould、King、Machiavelli、Orwell的《英語與政治》(Politics and the English Language) 、Quindlen、Swift)。
    • 象徵主義之應用 (White、V. Woolf(維吉尼亞•吳爾芙)、Plato(柏拉圖)、Gordon、Freud(佛洛依德)、Donne、Dillard、Lopez、Oates)。
    • 文風 (書中每篇論文均可)。
    • 你可自由選擇書中的其他範圍及主題。

寫作七

學習檔案卷宗

你的學習檔案卷宗需附上一篇「序文」。

每一篇選擇性的修改都需附上一篇新的後記。

所謂的卷宗就是那種便宜的卷宗夾,裡面有兩個內袋那種。你的卷宗需包含以下所有事項:

  • 一篇「序文」(500至1500字,2至6頁)來說明:文藝復興時期,Herrick曾說過「在日常繁忙的社群生活中,每日都有許多考量,修辭學可有效幫助其中的道德考量」。今日的修辭學對你的道德考量有多少助益呢(對於身為學生、身為麻省理工學院社群成員、身為美國人民一員的你)?修辭學對於你的日常生活有助益嗎?修辭學是引你走向真理還是趨於妥協呢?也或者修辭學混淆你的視聽、徒增你的困擾呢?為了說明你的立場,你可放心舉用自身的例子或是使用出自別處的來源。
  • 在左邊的內袋中請放入「序文」及新增的選擇性修改和後記。
  • 在右邊的內袋中請放入所有經我批改過的論文版本(強制性修改及選擇性修改)。


口頭報告

  1. 課堂討論及小組活動
    整個學期中每個人都要積極參與課堂討論及小組活動。
  2. 即席演說(2至3分鐘)
    這些是未經事先準備的演說。我會在課堂上公佈幾個主題,留幾分鐘給大家組織思緒,然後不是看有誰自願上台就是隨邊抽點同學上台發表。有時候主題可能會是閱讀中的重要觀念。
  3. 演講(3至5分鐘)
    無稿演講就是可事先準備且事先練習的演講。你應該使用上有演講大綱的提示卡(無稿演講不是朗讀也不能死記)。第一次的無稿演講是在第二堂課的自我介紹,另外在之後的小組討論日或是課堂中,你可能會被點名上台發表你的論文主題;因此,事前的反覆口說練習是很重要的。
  4. 期末無稿演講(6至7分鐘)
    該演講必須為指定主題的演講且演講結束後會有問答時間。


期末無稿演講的主題

如果你有選擇服務學習方案,你可以以此為主題(但是不一定要以此為主題)。

如果你選擇了服務學習方案,你的演講可以是有關該非營利團體的某個修辭面向,但不一定要是有關你的服務學習經驗,如該非營利團體使用的修辭(例如為了籌措資金、意識提升、提昇士氣、公開宣傳等等)或是報導該非營利團的媒體使用修辭。

如果你沒有選擇服務學習方案(或者你有選擇該方案但並沒有討論的意願),你的演講主題必須是「日常生活中的修辭」

「日常生活中的修辭」:該演講的長短必須為6至7分鐘且需事先準備,上台時不准拿講稿(不是死記也不是現場捏造),請使用上有大綱的提示卡。

  • 找出一段很明顯地有使用修辭學的素材。可以是一篇政治演講也可以是你的物理學課程綱要,可以是歌詞也可以是紀念公園,可以是為一首詩也可以是一尊雕像,可以是劇本的一景也可以是教科書中的一篇文章,不過該素材必須是確有其物(不是你所耳聞也不是想像出來的)。
  • 你必須使用視覺輔助。如果該素材是一棟建築物、一張圖片、一則廣告或是一尊雕像,請將它具體呈現出來(你可以準備足量的講義給班上的每位聽眾-18人,或是使用投影片)。
  • 如果你的素材演講是以文字方式呈現,請為每個人準備一份影本(共18份)。

在你的演講中:

  • 解釋修辭情境(該素材的說服目的為何?目標讀者為何?你是在哪裡找到這段文字的?譬如說是在哪本雜誌等等?)
  • 請替我們為這段文字做個摘要。
  • 請為我們分析這段文字。
  • 請說服我們此素材的確實足以做為修辭的實例。
  • 請解釋此素材應用了哪些特殊的修辭學資源。
  • 請闡明這些資源如何應用於此素材中。
  • 請解釋此素材是如何在某方面是說服我們的。
  • 請解釋此素材欲激發讀者的何種行動或感覺。
  • 最後,請評估其修辭對讀者的可能產生的影響(日常的、隱匿的、明顯的、任何影響等等)。
  • 為了說服我們,你的演講本身就要使用修辭的策略和方法。



Writing Assignments

Writing Assignment #1

Preliminary Writing Assignment (PWA)

Analysis of a Controversy. Follow the format found in the handout of Patti Cohen's "Should Judges…?" Your Title must be your Issue in the form of a question (a la Cohen). The document must contain the following headings:

  • Context (background your readers will need to understand the arguments).
  • Pro arguments (as a numbered list).
  • Who makes these pro arguments and why.
  • Some specific actions the pros should take (list).
  • Con arguments (as a numbered list).
  • Who makes these arguments and why.
  • Some specific actions the cons should take (list)
  • References (a minimum of 6 sources- each identified as "pro" or "con" or as "context")- use the MLA documentation and parenthetical citation format syllabus).

Note: Several anthologies on reserve for this course in the Reserve Room contain pro and con articles on a variety of topics. Also, the reference librarians in Hayden Library are incredibly helpful resources. Do not simply rely on Web sources.

Writing Assignment #2

Proposal for Service Learning Option

To be appropriate for Service Learning credit, your project must fulfill these criteria:

  • The service project must support and inform the theories, ideas, and skills learned in the class- i.e., the project must include aspects of rhetoric in writing and/or oral presentation.
  • Communities in need must be served by your project.

Your proposal must be in a list format and must include the following headings and information:

  • Organization: Name of the non-profit organization you will work for.
  • Contact: Name of your contact person and his/her phone number and email address.
  • What I'll Do: Details of what you will do for the non-profit organization (your contribution should be 2-3/hours per week for 10 weeks).
  • Schedule: When will you do what for the non-profit? Include here the date you will start and finish your writing for the non-profit (or your 4th essay that examines rhetoric in the non-profit).
  • Connection to class: This is a crucial section, for you must convince me (e.g., with details) that what you will do relates directly to this class and rhetoric.

Writing Assignment #3

First Essay

1st Essay (1000-2000 words, 4-8 double-spaced typed pages) + Postwrite.

Using the controversial issue that you researched for your PWA "Analysis of a Controversy," write a full-fledged argument defending and proving the position that you have decided to support.

See "Argument Requirements” for information about structure.

Your essay must

  • Use MLA parenthetical in-text documentation throughout the essay.
  • Include a "Works Cited" page.

Writing Assignment #4

Second Essay

2nd Essay (1000-2000 words, ~4-8 double-spaced typed pages).

Write a persuasive essay that explores and takes a stand on some significant controversy of interest to you.
This essay might be a position paper, a full-fledged argument, or a persuasive
personal essay.

Writing Assignment #5

Third Essay

3rd Essay (1000-2000 words, ~4-8 pages) + Postwrite. Write a persuasive essay on an issue involving rhetoric and/or morals. Use the concepts, terminology, theories, and insights from our readings and class discussions. Delve as deeply into the topic as you can. For many topics, some research will be needed. Here are some possible topics, but please feel free to invent your own topic:

  • According to rhetorician Barry Brummett, "…rhetoric is so much a part of our everyday lives …[that] one can study what it means to be human by thinking about what it means to be rhetorical." (1). Write an essay that makes a case for or against this assertion.
  • Do the ends justify the means? In other words, do the importance and/or good intentions and/or long-term results of the ultimate goals allow us to do "whatever it takes" in order to achieve those goals? This question underlies many moral discussions. Using a particular societal issue (e.g., euthanasia, war, terrorism, abortion, the use of rhetoric in ads or politics) or a personal or college issue (e.g., dating more than one person at a time, cheating to get into med school, lying to parents, saying "I love you" when you're not sure you mean it, reporting someone else who cheated), write an essay whose ultimate purpose will be to throw some light on the issues of ends justifying means (i.e., your intro and conclusion should invoke the ends/means issue, but the body your essay will explore that one particular issue you've selected).
  • How much individual freedom should we be willing to give up for security? There are several possible specific issues, any one of which you could select to explore this question- e.g., you might consider limits imposed on access to the Internet in order to protect children from pornography or to prevent information on how to build bombs or the home addresses of abortion doctors from falling into the wrong hands; or, using the measures taken by the US since September 11, 2001, attack on the Twin Towers as an example (e.g., the creation of Homeland Security, the checking of bags etc. at airports, racial profiling), take a position on how much individual freedom we should give up to protect us from terrorism? Whatever issue you select, adopt a position and persuade us that your position is more valid, more logical, more effective, more whatever than any other.
  • Are there moral limits to what a scientist or engineer should do (e.g., in terms of testing on humans or animals, in terms of developing weapons or biological weapons, in terms of having a "responsibility to society" that transcends responsibility to a company or government or one's own curiosity or career?)
  • Can scientists avoid using rhetoric? Should they avoid it?
  • Should tolerance be considered a desirable trait to have? If so, what are the limits (if any) of tolerance? In other words, when (if ever) should we stop tolerating the offensive actions of some person or of some group or of some country? Write an essay proving your position.
  • Assuming that Gorgias is correct that language has great potential for the control of the mind of others, what are the dangers of eloquence and what (if anything) can (and should) society do about those dangers and potential? Think about this issue at least in terms of politics and advertising.
  • Often modern-day lawyers are seen as following the beliefs of sophists. After establishing what the sophists taught, look at 2-3 discussions of lawyer ethics in sophisticated magazines or in professional law journals or books of law ethics. Write an argument agreeing with the lawyers/sophists or disagreeing with them (and hence agreeing with Plato, perhaps).
  • Is it immoral to teach students the art of rhetoric- i.e., to teach them how to "read" an audience and how to devise arguments that will influence that particular audience to think or feel or act in a particular way? What does teaching rhetoric suggest about the existence (or non-existence) of Truth? Write a persuasive essay defending and proving your position.
  • Select an essay or article (from ESSAYS or some equally sophisticated source) that makes an argument about some rhetorical or moral issue- analyze that text's argument as part of your own argument about that same topic.
  • Or your own topic about a moral or rhetorical controversy.

Writing Assignment #6

Fourth Essay

4th Essay (1000-2000 words, ~4-8 typed double-spaced pages) + Postwrite.

Here are the possible topics. Regardless of the topic, use the concepts, terminology, theories, and insights that we've read about and discussed throughout the semester:

  • If you selected the Service Learning option, your 4th essay must be 1 of these 3- and attach a very detailed Postwrite explaining the rhetorical situation (your goals for the writing, the demographic details of the intended readers, where the writing is intended to appear), your rhetorical strategies for persuading the intended readers, and what you learned specifically about rhetoric by writing for a real-world audience (the non-profit plus the intended readers):
    • Hand in the piece(s) of writing you have done for your non-profit organization (e.g., a newsletter, a brochure, an article, a Web page).
    • OR write a persuasive exploration of the uses of rhetoric at or by your non-profit. Include your suggestions how to improve the persuasion by the non-profit for its intended audience (be sure to use the concepts and terms we have discussed throughout the semester).
    • OR write a persuasive essay about the uses of rhetoric by those people who write about your non-profit (e.g., in magazines, newspaper articles).
  • If you did not select the Service Learning option, you must write a persuasive essay that contains a rhetorical analysis and an interpretation of 3 essays from ESSAYS that either deal with a common theme or use similar rhetorical strategies (you may use essays discussed in class). Your purpose is to explore the similarities and differences in the uses of rhetoric in the 3 essays and to draw some conclusion about the uses of rhetoric from this sample of 3 essays. In other words, your analyses and interpretations of the 3 essays are the evidence for your ultimate conclusion. You do not have to limit yourself to the suggested essays or topics, but all essays that you use must be from ESSAYS:
    • Nature (some possible essays are Thoreau, Dillard's "Weasels," Twain, Emerson, V. Woolf's "Moth," Eisely, Darwin , Hoagland, Gould).
    • Social World (Didion's "Marrying," Wolfe, Thurber, Rodriguez).
    • Racial Identity (Baldwin , Douglass, King, Kincaid, Cofer, Staples, Truth, DuBois, Steele).
    • Gender (Carter, Ehrlich, Kingston , Momaday, Cooper, Brownmiller, Quindlen, V. Woolf's "Professions").
    • Parent-Child Relationships (Baldwin 's "Notes," Kafka, Gates, G. Woolf, Sanders, Ozick, Baker, Lee).
    • Communication (Kingston , Orwell's "Politics," Tan, Tannen, Lakoff, Wright).
    • Personal Belief (Thoreau, Brownmiller, Davenport , Donne, Forster, Freud, Hughes, Silko, White).
    • Humor and Satire (Barry, Lawrence, Mencken, Swift, Thurber).
    • The Revelation and Uses of Ethos (just about every essay in the book).
    • The Uses of Pathos (Baldwin , Carter, Didion, Dillard's "Jest," DuBus, Gordon, Hughes, Kingston , Lopez, Staples, King, G. Woolf).
    • The Uses of Logic (Auden, Brownmiller, Darwin, DuBois, Freud, Gould, King, Machiavelli, Orwell's "Politics," Quindlen, Swift).
    • The Uses of Symbolism (White, V. Woolf, Plato, Gordon, Freud, Donne, Dillard, Lopez, Oates).
    • Style (every essay in the book).
    • Some category or theme of your own choice.

Writing Assignment #7

Portfolio

Your Portfolio with its "Introductory Essay."

For each Optional Revision that you include, attach new Postwrite.

The Portfolio should be one of those cheap paper folders that have two inner pockets. Your Portfolio must contain all of the following:

  • An Introductory Essay (500-1500 words, ~2-6 pages) that addresses the following: Of the Renaissance, Herrick notes that "Rhetoric had a practical role to play in guiding ethical deliberations in the noisy deliberations of day-to-day life in a busy community" (150). How useful is rhetoric today in helping you (as a student, as a member of the MIT community, as a member of American society) in your ethical deliberations? Does rhetoric help you in everyday life? Does it lead you to truth and/or compromise or does it, instead, muddy the waters and add to confusion? Feel free to use examples from your own life or from other sources to illustrate your position.
  • In the left-hand pocket, place the "Introductory Essay" and any new Optional Revisions and their Postwrites.
  • In the right-hand pocket, place all the corrected-by-me versions of your essays (Mandatory and Optional Revisions).


Oral Presentations

  1. Class Discussions and Workshops.
    Everyone is expected to participate meaningfully in class discussions and workshops throughout the semester.
  2. Impromptu Speeches (2-3 minutes).
    These are off-the-cuff speeches. I'll announce a choice of topics in class, give everyone a couple of minutes to organize his/her thoughts, and then either ask for volunteers or randomly select speakers. Sometimes the topics will be key concepts from the readings.
  3. Extemporaneous Speeches (3-5 minutes).
    An extemporaneous speech is one that has been prepared and practiced ahead of time. You should use note cards with an outline of the speech (extemporaneous speeches are not read or memorized). The first extemporaneous speech will be your speech of self-introduction during the 2nd class meeting. In addition, on the workshop day or the following class period, you might be called upon to give a speech about the topic on which you wrote your essay. So it's important to practice "talking the topic" several times before you come to class.
  4. Final Extemporaneous Speech (6-7 minutes).
    This speech must be about the assigned topic and it will be followed by a Q-and-A session.


Final Extemporaneous Speech Topics

If you selected the Service Learning option, your speech may be on this topic (but it does not have to be on this topic).

If you selected the SL Option, your speech may be about some aspect of rhetoric involving your non-profit (but it does not have to be about your SL experience-- e.g., the rhetoric used by the non-profit (e.g., for fund raising, for consciousness raising, for morale boosting, for publicity) or the rhetoric used by media about your non-profit.

If you did not select the Service Learning Option (or if you did select the SL Option but wish not to talk about the SL), you must give a speech on "Rhetoric in our everyday lives."

"Rhetoric in our everyday lives." The speech should be 6-7 minutes in length. It must be given extemporaneously (i.e., not read or memorized or made up on the spot). Use note cards for your outline.

  • Find a text that significantly uses rhetoric. This text might be anything from a political speech to your physics syllabus, from song lyrics to a public garden, from a piece of sculpture to a poem, from an advertisement to a piece of architecture, from a scene in a play to an essay in our textbook. But it must be a physical text (i.e., not a conversation that you heard or imagined).
  • You must use a visual aid. If the text is something such as a building, a photograph, an advertisement, a sculpture, please make it a visual for us (either bring enough handouts for each person in the audience-- 18 people-- or make an overhead slide).
  • If yours is a written text, please bring copies for everyone (18 copies).

In your speech,

  • Explain the rhetorical situation (What is the persuasive purpose of this text? For what specific audience was this text created? Where did you find the text- i.e., in what magazine, etc.?)
  • Summarize the text for us.
  • Analyze this text for us.
  • Make a persuasive case that the text is indeed an example of rhetoric.
  • Explain which specific resources of rhetoric it uses.
  • Explain how it uses each of those resources.
  • Explain how it tries to persuade us in some way.
  • Explain what exactly it tries to make its audience do or feel.
  • Finally, evaluate the effect that such rhetoric (everyday, submerged, overt, whatever) does or might have on us.
  • Your speech itself must use rhetorical strategies and devices in order to persuade us.



 
MIT Home
Massachusetts Institute of Technology Terms of Use Privacy