MIME-Version: 1.0 Content-Type: multipart/related; boundary="----=_NextPart_01C61253.88D67760" 此文件是「單一檔案網頁」,亦稱為「網頁封存檔案」。若看到此訊息,表示您的瀏覽器或編輯器不支援「網頁封存檔案」。請下載支援「網頁封存」的瀏覽器,例如 Microsoft Internet Explorer。 ------=_NextPart_01C61253.88D67760 Content-Location: file:///C:/B1343A13/kms.htm Content-Transfer-Encoding: quoted-printable Content-Type: text/html; charset="us-ascii" 東亞文化圈與教育</ti= tle> <!--[if gte mso 9]><xml> <o:DocumentProperties> <o:Author>台灣大學歷史系</o:Aut= hor> <o:Template>Normal</o:Template> <o:LastAuthor>Ssu Chieh</o:LastAuthor> <o:Revision>2</o:Revision> <o:TotalTime>63</o:TotalTime> <o:LastPrinted>2002-09-24T08:58:00Z</o:LastPrinted> <o:Created>2006-01-05T15:55:00Z</o:Created> <o:LastSaved>2006-01-05T15:55:00Z</o:LastSaved> <o:Pages>1</o:Pages> <o:Words>2628</o:Words> <o:Characters>14982</o:Characters> <o:Lines>124</o:Lines> <o:Paragraphs>35</o:Paragraphs> <o:CharactersWithSpaces>17575</o:CharactersWithSpaces> <o:Version>11.6360</o:Version> </o:DocumentProperties> <o:CustomDocumentProperties> <o:_AdHocReviewCycleID dt:dt=3D"float">-1489006945</o:_AdHocReviewCycleID> <o:_EmailSubject dt:dt=3D"string">中華文明第= ;五屆-4</o:_EmailSubject> <o:_AuthorEmail dt:dt=3D"string">snow@himalaya.org.tw</o:_AuthorEmail> <o:_AuthorEmailDisplayName dt:dt=3D"string">Snow(李雪瑩= )</o:_AuthorEmailDisplayName> <o:_ReviewingToolsShownOnce dt:dt=3D"string"></o:_ReviewingToolsShownOnce> </o:CustomDocumentProperties> </xml><![endif]--><!--[if gte mso 9]><xml> <w:WordDocument> <w:PunctuationKerning/> <w:DisplayHorizontalDrawingGridEvery>0</w:DisplayHorizontalDrawingGridEve= ry> <w:DisplayVerticalDrawingGridEvery>2</w:DisplayVerticalDrawingGridEvery> <w:ValidateAgainstSchemas/> <w:SaveIfXMLInvalid>false</w:SaveIfXMLInvalid> <w:IgnoreMixedContent>false</w:IgnoreMixedContent> <w:AlwaysShowPlaceholderText>false</w:AlwaysShowPlaceholderText> <w:Compatibility> <w:SpaceForUL/> <w:BalanceSingleByteDoubleByteWidth/> <w:DoNotLeaveBackslashAlone/> <w:ULTrailSpace/> 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mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} </style> <![endif]--> </head> <body lang=3DZH-TW style=3D'tab-interval:24.0pt;text-justify-trim:punctuati= on'> <div class=3DSection1 style=3D'layout-grid:18.0pt'> <p class=3Da8 style=3D'mso-layout-grid-align:auto;text-autospace:ideograph-= numeric ideograph-other; mso-vertical-align-alt:auto'><span style=3D'mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-= family: \83EF\5EB7\6977\66F8\9AD4W5;mso-ascii-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-fon= t-kerning: 1.0pt'>東亞文化圈與教育</sp= an><span lang=3DEN-US style=3D'mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:\83= EF\5EB7\6977\66F8\9AD4W5; mso-font-kerning:1.0pt'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=3DMsoNormal align=3Dright style=3D'text-align:right;mso-line-heigh= t-alt: 0pt'><span style=3D'font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:= \83EF\5EB7\6977\66F8\9AD4W5; mso-ascii-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>高</span><span style=3D'font= -size: 14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family:\83EF\5EB7\6977\66= F8\9AD4W5'> </span><span style=3D'font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-famil= y: \83EF\5EB7\6977\66F8\9AD4W5;mso-ascii-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>਴= 6;</span><span style=3D'font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareast-font-family= :\83EF\5EB7\6977\66F8\9AD4W5'> </span><span style=3D'font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-famil= y: \83EF\5EB7\6977\66F8\9AD4W5;mso-ascii-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>ࣤ= 3;</span><span lang=3DEN-US style=3D'font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareas= t-font-family: \83EF\5EB7\6977\66F8\9AD4W5'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=3Da2 style=3D'mso-line-height-alt:0pt'><span style=3D'font-family:= DFKai-SB; mso-ascii-font-family:PMingLiU;mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>= 9968;、文化圈與東亞文ࡏ= 0;圈的形成</span><span lang=3DEN-US style=3D'font-size:11.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:10.0pt'><o:p></o:= p></span></p> <p class=3Da4 style=3D'text-indent:24.0pt;mso-char-indent-count:2.0'><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-h= ansi-font-family: "Times New Roman"'>文化發展過程中= ,因傳播而接觸到異= 6074;文化,其間所產生௚= 0;種種變化問題,尤其&= #20986;現第三種新文化型= 907;,即所謂「涵化」(= ;或謂「文化變容」)&#= 21839;題;以及諸劣勢文Ô= 70;吸收優勢文化後所形= 成的「文化圈」問題= 5292;自</span><span lang=3DEN-US>1930</span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-= family: "Times New Roman";mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>年代= 以來,已引起學者們= 9105;烈的討論。</span><a style=3D'mso-footnote-id:ftn1' href=3D"#_ftn1" name=3D"_ftnref1" title=3D""= ><span class=3DMsoFootnoteReference><span lang=3DEN-US><span style=3D'mso-special-= character: footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span class=3DMsoFootnoteReference><span lang=3DEN-US style=3D'font-size:12.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:10.0pt;font-famil= y:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-langua= ge: ZH-TW;mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[1]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></s= pan></a><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-h= ansi-font-family: "Times New Roman"'>所謂「文化圈」= 論,學界雖然有異論= 5292;但是在近代以前,ࢸ= 0;表上有若干「文化圈&= #12301;存在,大致已為學= 028;所公認。例如湯恩比= ;氏(</span><span lang=3DEN-US>A.Toynbee</span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-= font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>在其= 名著《歷史研究》(</s= pan><span lang=3DEN-US>A Study of History</span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU; mso-ascii-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Ro= man"'>),雖無用「文化Þ= 80;」一詞,但對於同時= 並存諸文明,以為有= 9544;立文明與子屬文明৏= 0;衛星文明之關係,如&= #35586;西方文明與華夏文= 126;彼此是為獨立文明,= ;但韓國文明、日本文&#= 26126;、越南文明,則為ő= 75;夏文明的衛星文明。= 這是因為日、韓、越= 9977;文明都是由華夏文਴= 6;引發出來的關係。這&= #27171;的一組文明,實際= 063;就是文化圈的意義。= ;在湯氏所處理的三十&#= 19971;種文明中,類似於ő= 75;夏文明、西方文明的= 文化圈意義究竟還有= 4190;種﹖湯氏未明言,৺= 2;諸其意,至少還有蘇&= #32654;──阿加底亞文明ӌ= 9;埃及文明、愛琴文明&= #12289;天竺文明以及希臘= 991;明、伊斯蘭文明等。= ;</span><a style=3D'mso-footnote-id:ftn2' href=3D"#_ftn2" name=3D"_ftnref2" title=3D""= ><span class=3DMsoFootnoteReference><span lang=3DEN-US><span style=3D'mso-special-= character: footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span class=3DMsoFootnoteReference><span lang=3DEN-US style=3D'font-size:12.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:10.0pt;font-famil= y:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-langua= ge: ZH-TW;mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[2]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></s= pan></a></p> <p class=3Da4 style=3D'text-indent:24.0pt;mso-char-indent-count:2.0'><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-h= ansi-font-family: "Times New Roman"'>近來的研究,對= 於歷史時代的文化圈= 5292;仍無一定的界定法ᦂ= 7;朱雲影提出世界有五&= #22823;文化圈說,此即中= 283;文化圈、西方基督教= ;文化圈、東方正教文&#= 21270;圈、回教(伊斯蘭ʌ= 89;文化圈、印度文化圈= ,可為參考。</span><a style=3D'mso-footnote-id:ftn3' href=3D"#_ftn3" name=3D"_ftnref3" title=3D""= ><span class=3DMsoFootnoteReference><span lang=3DEN-US><span style=3D'mso-special-= character: footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span class=3DMsoFootnoteReference><span lang=3DEN-US style=3D'font-size:12.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:10.0pt;font-famil= y:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-langua= ge: ZH-TW;mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[3]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></s= pan></a><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-h= ansi-font-family: "Times New Roman"'>季羨林、周一良= 、龐朴等在其主編之= 2298;東方文化叢書》〈ಟ= 7;序〉提出四大文化圈&= #35498;,此即古希臘和羅'= 340;文化圈、閃族(指由= ;希伯來至伊斯蘭時期&#= 65289;文化圈、印度文化Þ= 80;、中國文化圈,同時= 又將此等四大文化圈= 7512;為兩大文化體系:ߌ= 8;為西方文化體系,指&= #30001;希臘、羅馬直至今= 085;的歐美文化;一為東= ;方文化體系,指閃族&#= 12289;印度和中國文化。</spa= n><a style=3D'mso-footnote-id:ftn4' href=3D"#_ftn4" name=3D"_ftnref4" title=3D""= ><span class=3DMsoFootnoteReference><span lang=3DEN-US><span style=3D'mso-special-= character: footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span class=3DMsoFootnoteReference><span lang=3DEN-US style=3D'font-size:12.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:10.0pt;font-famil= y:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-langua= ge: ZH-TW;mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[4]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></s= pan></a><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-h= ansi-font-family: "Times New Roman"'>此說亦甚為具體= 。田村實造氏就亞洲= 0340;歷史世界加以區分ᦁ= 2;提出東亞、北亞、南&= #20126;、西亞等四個文化= 280;說,也是一說。</span><a style=3D'mso-footnote-id:ftn5' href=3D"#_ftn5" name=3D"_ftnref5" title=3D""= ><span class=3DMsoFootnoteReference><span lang=3DEN-US><span style=3D'mso-special-= character: footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span class=3DMsoFootnoteReference><span lang=3DEN-US style=3D'font-size:12.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:10.0pt;font-famil= y:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-langua= ge: ZH-TW;mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[5]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></s= pan></a><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-h= ansi-font-family: "Times New Roman"'>田村氏的東亞文= 化圈說,其實就是朱= 7663;等人的中國文化圈ෝ= 8;。</span></p> <p class=3DMsoNormal style=3D'text-indent:24.0pt;mso-char-indent-count:2.0'= ><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-h= ansi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-font-kerning:0pt'>依此看來= 5292;地表上在歷史時代ఒ= 6;實有數個「文化圈」&= #23384;在,例如基督教文= 270;圈、回教文化圈、印= ;度文化圈等,而中國&#= 25991;化圈即是其中之一z= 90;歷史上的中國文化圈= ,是存在於以中國為= 0013;心,包含朝鮮半島ӌ= 9;日本、越南等東亞地&= #21312;,其文化活動中,= 377;諸共通的文化要素。= ;所以,中國文化圈又&#= 34987;稱為東亞文化圈。Ű= 89;些共通的文化諸要素= ,對東亞各民族而言= 5292;其內容並非完全相ࡧ= 6;;也就是說,各民族&= #20173;有其獨自的文化活= 205;,但無礙於某些特定= ;文化要素,在此一地&#= 21312;所具有的共通性。ġ= 82;則,東亞地區在傳統= 時代裡,其共通的文= 1270;諸要素為何﹖有由थ= 6;術、思想、政治、產&= #26989;、風俗、宗教等方&= 754;,論述中國文化對日= ;、韓、越的影響,雖&#= 28961;具體歸納出文化的Ð= 49;通要素來,但仍採用= 「中國文化圈」的用= 5486;;</span><a style=3D'mso-footnote-id:ftn6' href=3D"#_ftn6" name=3D"_ftnref6" title=3D""= ><span class=3DMsoFootnoteReference><span lang=3DEN-US style=3D'mso-font-kerning:0= pt'><span style=3D'mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span class=3DMsoFootnoteReference><span lang=3DEN-US style=3D'font-size:12.0pt;f= ont-family: "Times New Roman";mso-fareast-font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ansi-language:EN-US; mso-fareast-language:ZH-TW;mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[6]</span></span><![end= if]></span></span></span></a><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-h= ansi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-font-kerning:0pt'>較具體的= 5292;當指漢字、儒教、঍= 9;令制度、中國化佛教&= #31561;四要素的說法。</span><a style=3D'mso-footnote-id:ftn7' href=3D"#_ftn7" name=3D"_ftnref7" title=3D""= ><span class=3DMsoFootnoteReference><span lang=3DEN-US style=3D'mso-font-kerning:0= pt'><span style=3D'mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span class=3DMsoFootnoteReference><span lang=3DEN-US style=3D'font-size:12.0pt;f= ont-family: "Times New Roman";mso-fareast-font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ansi-language:EN-US; mso-fareast-language:ZH-TW;mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[7]</span></span><![end= if]></span></span></span></a><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-h= ansi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-font-kerning:0pt'>此說大致= 1487;被接受,惟仍欠週ॿ= 0;,即忽略中國科技要&= #32032;在此一地區之流通 = 290;所謂科技,此處特指= ;中國官府所傳授的天&#= 25991;、曆法、陰陽學、ļ= 39;學、醫學等</span><a style=3D'mso-footnote-id:ftn8' href=3D"#_ftn8" name=3D"_ftnref8" title=3D""= ><span class=3DMsoFootnoteReference><span lang=3DEN-US style=3D'mso-font-kerning:0= pt'><span style=3D'mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span class=3DMsoFootnoteReference><span lang=3DEN-US style=3D'font-size:12.0pt;f= ont-family: "Times New Roman";mso-fareast-font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ansi-language:EN-US; mso-fareast-language:ZH-TW;mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[8]</span></span><![end= if]></span></span></span></a><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-h= ansi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-font-kerning:0pt'>。</span><span lang=3DEN-US style=3D'mso-font-kerning:0pt'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=3DMsoNormal style=3D'text-indent:24.0pt;mso-char-indent-count:2.0'= ><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-h= ansi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-font-kerning:0pt'>漢字、儒= 5945;、律令法制、中國ࡏ= 0;佛教以及中國的科技&= #31561;五要素,從文化人'= 006;學的觀點而言,正好= ;代表人類文化具體事&#= 29289;的主要成分。文化Ç= 78;的許多現象,有時不= 免抽象,無法予以命= 1517;;討論到文化內涵ਹ= 8;,更是言人人殊。但&= #23559;文化的內涵,具體= 312;分為語言文字、物質= ;文明、社會組織、精&#= 31070;思想等四類,也是Ö= 87;接受的說法。</span><a style=3D'mso-footnote-id:ftn9' href=3D"#_ftn9" name=3D"_ftnref9" title=3D""= ><span class=3DMsoFootnoteReference><span lang=3DEN-US style=3D'mso-font-kerning:0= pt'><span style=3D'mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span class=3DMsoFootnoteReference><span lang=3DEN-US style=3D'font-size:12.0pt;f= ont-family: "Times New Roman";mso-fareast-font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ansi-language:EN-US; mso-fareast-language:ZH-TW;mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[9]</span></span><![end= if]></span></span></span></a><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-h= ansi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-font-kerning:0pt'>據此而言= 5292;東亞文化共相當中௚= 0;語言文字部分,可由&= #28450;字來代表;物質文= 126;部分,可由中國的科= ;技來代表;社會組織&#= 37096;分,可由律令法制Ë= 58;代表;精神思想部分= ,可由儒教、中國化= 0315;教來代表。東亞文ࡏ= 0;活動的主要成分,既&= #28982;可由中國文化要素= 358;說明,一般也就將此= ;地區的文化形態,稱&#= 28858;「中國文化圈」或{= 00;東亞文化圈」。再者= ,由於上述五要素的= 1560;收,一般是透過漢ढ= 3;書寫的作品來理解,&= #25152;以,東亞文化圈又= 487;稱為「漢字文化圈」= ;。</span><a style=3D'mso-footnote-id:ftn10' href=3D"#_ftn10" name=3D"_ftnref10" title= =3D""><span class=3DMsoFootnoteReference><span lang=3DEN-US style=3D'mso-font-kerning:0= pt'><span style=3D'mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span class=3DMsoFootnoteReference><span lang=3DEN-US style=3D'font-size:12.0pt;f= ont-family: "Times New Roman";mso-fareast-font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ansi-language:EN-US; mso-fareast-language:ZH-TW;mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[10]</span></span><![en= dif]></span></span></span></a><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-h= ansi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-font-kerning:0pt'>這五項文= 1270;共相,全部呈現在੘= 1;亞地區,時間是在七&= #12289;八世紀之際,也就= 159;中國隋朝及唐朝前期= ;。</span><span lang=3DEN-US style=3D'mso-font-kerning:0pt'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=3DMsoBodyTextIndent3 style=3D'text-indent:29.4pt'><span style=3D'f= ont-size: 12.0pt;font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-han= si-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-font-kerning:0pt'>東亞文化= 2280;的形成,以諸要素ߔ= 3;一在此地區出現為始&= #65292;至全部出現時,乃= 578;形成。就時間而言,= ;由先秦至隋唐之際,&#= 26159;其形成過程;七、Ð= 43;世紀之際,是其形成= 時期;十九世紀中葉= 0197;後,由於西方強勢ਧ= 1;化的入侵,東亞文化&= #22280;以及中國所建立的= 825;下秩序乃告解體。所= ;謂東亞,在地理上指</= span><span style=3D'font-size:12.0pt;font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-family:"Times= New Roman"; mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>除中國而&#= 22806;,包括朝鮮半島國ê= 78;、日本,以及十世紀= 獨立以後的越南;十= 9990;紀以前的越南,是ा= 0;於中國的州郡,適用&= #22283;內制度。在</span><span style=3D'font-size:12.0pt;font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-family:"Times= New Roman"; mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-font-kerning:0pt'>七z= 89;八世紀之際,也就是= 中國的隋唐時代,</span><span style=3D'font-size:12.0pt;font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-family:"Times= New Roman"; mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>日本已經&#= 26159;統一國家,朝鮮半í= 98;在七世紀後半,唐朝= 未消滅高句麗、百濟= 0197;前,是屬於三國(ོ= 0;句麗、百濟、新羅)&= #26178;代,七世紀後半以= 460;,由新羅統一全半島= ;,韓國史上稱為統一&#= 26032;羅時代。茲將上述</spa= n><span style=3D'font-size:12.0pt;font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-family:"Times= New Roman"; mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-font-kerning:0pt'>東É= 26;文化圈所賴以形成的= 五要素,略加說明。</s= pan><a style=3D'mso-footnote-id:ftn11' href=3D"#_ftn11" name=3D"_ftnref11" title= =3D""><span class=3DMsoFootnoteReference><span lang=3DEN-US style=3D'mso-font-kerning:0= pt'><span style=3D'mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span class=3DMsoFootnoteReference><span lang=3DEN-US style=3D'font-size:11.0pt;m= so-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-fareast-font-family:PMingLiU; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:ZH-TW;mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'= >[11]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a></p> <p class=3Da3 style=3D'text-indent:28.0pt;mso-char-indent-count:2.0;line-he= ight: normal'><span style=3D'font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:10.0pt;font-fami= ly: \83EF\5EB7\6977\66F8\9AD4W5'>1、漢字<span lang=3DE= N-US><o:p></o:p></span></span></p> <p class=3DMsoNormal style=3D'text-indent:24.0pt;mso-char-indent-count:2.0'= ><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-h= ansi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-font-kerning:0pt'>文化交流= 0340;途徑,可以有多種ᦁ= 2;除政治性的使節往還&= #20197;外,尚可以循由學= 983;、商人、工匠以及僧= ;侶等。</span><a style=3D'mso-footnote-id:ftn12' href=3D"#_ftn12" name=3D"_ftnref12" title= =3D""><span class=3DMsoFootnoteReference><span lang=3DEN-US style=3D'mso-font-kerning:0= pt'><span style=3D'mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span class=3DMsoFootnoteReference><span lang=3DEN-US style=3D'font-size:12.0pt;f= ont-family: "Times New Roman";mso-fareast-font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ansi-language:EN-US; mso-fareast-language:ZH-TW;mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[12]</span></span><![en= dif]></span></span></span></a><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-h= ansi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-font-kerning:0pt'>不論何種= 6884;徑,以漢字作媒介਷= 9;不可缺少的。例如九&= #19990;紀前半,日僧圓仁$= 212;唐求法,到唐土時,= ;起初即用漢字與唐人&#= 31558;談,無礙溝通;二Õ= 13;多年前,筆者赴韓國= 考察孔廟、書院,以= 1450;若干重要佛寺,有ව= 1;我簽名者,通常是用&= #27611;筆書寫,令我驚訝A= 307;日本廣島在第二次大= ;戰結束後,於美軍原&#= 23376;彈爆炸的地方,在ß= 20;上建一臥碑,其記事= 謂原子彈即在此地上= 1354;六百公尺處爆炸云ߛ= 3;,即全用漢字書寫。&= #36889;是漢字在東亞直至= 170;日猶見其魅力的證據= ;。所以東亞文化圈又&#= 31281;為漢字文化圈,就ą= 59;這個緣故。據此而言= ,東亞文化圈形成之= 1205;力,首先宜由漢字ߔ= 3;生根、發展去思考。<= /span><span lang=3DEN-US style=3D'mso-font-kerning:0pt'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=3Da4><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-family:"Ti= mes New Roman"; mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>從考古的&#= 25104;果,可知至遲在戰Þ= 83;晚期,漢字已輸入朝= 鮮半島。燕國的明刀= 7666;在半島西北部的發ங= 4;,秦戈在平壤出土,&= #23601;是明顯的證據。另= 806;,由文獻的記載,從= ;「箕氏朝鮮」到「衛&#= 27663;朝鮮」的成立,說ą= 26;漢族到朝鮮的拓殖過= 程。「衛氏朝鮮」</span><span lang=3DEN-US>(B.C.194</span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-f= ont-family: "Times New Roman";mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>~</span><= span lang=3DEN-US>108)</span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-= family: "Times New Roman";mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>,都= 王險城(今平壤市)= 5292;將近一世紀的漢族ਟ= 9;權,其有相當程度的&= #28450;字文化發展,自可= 702;解。朝鮮半島此後經= ;過漢領四郡時代,至&#= 22235;世紀初,樂浪郡最ô= 60;被高句麗吞併為止,= 始結束漢領朝鮮時代= 2290;三、四世紀時期,਷= 9;三國(高句麗、百濟&= #12289;新羅)鼎立時期。= 450;字的使用,在三、四= ;世紀之際,已達到圓&#= 29087;,尤其與當時中國ă= 19;府往還交涉的事務,= 自需用漢字書寫。朝= 9854;後來雖有諺文吏讀௚= 0;出現,但無礙於上層&= #30693;識份子的漢文教養 = 290;日本方面,至遲在西= ;漢末,漢字已輸入日&#= 26412;列島,此事從九州Ò= 40;畿內一帶的彌生式遺= 跡中,發現王莽時代= 0340;「貨泉」、「貨布ӎ= 1;等貨幣可得證明。</span><a style=3D'mso-footnote-id:ftn13' href=3D"#_ftn13" name=3D"_ftnref13" title= =3D""><span class=3DMsoFootnoteReference><span lang=3DEN-US><span style=3D'mso-special-= character: footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span class=3DMsoFootnoteReference><span lang=3DEN-US style=3D'font-size:12.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:10.0pt;font-famil= y:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-langua= ge: ZH-TW;mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[13]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></= span></a><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-h= ansi-font-family: "Times New Roman"'>後漢光武帝頒賜= 「漢委奴國王」金印= 2102;倭國境內的奴國王ᦁ= 2;此印當是倭之奴國持&= #20197;與當時之漢朝政府= 132;涉的憑據。至曹魏齊= ;王芳</span><span lang=3DEN-US>(239</span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-= family: "Times New Roman";mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>年</span><= span lang=3DEN-US>)</span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-fam= ily: "Times New Roman";mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>時,= 倭受封為「親魏倭王= 2301;。三、四世紀時期௚= 0;日本,其與當時中國&= #35576;王朝往來,已能使= 992;熟練的漢文,殆無疑= ;問。後來日本雖也發&#= 26126;表音文字以及萬葉Í= 51;名,與朝鮮一樣,仍= 無礙於上層知識份子= 0340;漢文教養。至於越ࡕ= 5;,自秦漢以來已領有&= #20854;北半部,所以漢字&= 568;著統治權的行使而移= ;入該地區,亦可理解&#= 12290;</span></p> <p class=3Da3 style=3D'text-indent:28.0pt;mso-char-indent-count:2.0;line-he= ight: normal'><span style=3D'font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:10.0pt;font-fami= ly: \83EF\5EB7\6977\66F8\9AD4W5'>2、儒教<span lang=3DE= N-US><o:p></o:p></span></span></p> <p class=3Da4><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-family:"Ti= mes New Roman"; mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>儒教要素&#= 21487;由儒家經典的教學Ō= 87;流傳,獲得證明。朝= 鮮半島方面,漢武帝= 6178;代曾下令「天下郡ࢴ= 3;皆立學校官」(《漢&= #26360;》卷</span><span lang=3DEN-US>89</span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-fa= mily: "Times New Roman";mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>循吏= 文翁傳),朝鮮為郡= 2291;之地,理論上自應๲= 1;令設學立教,惟詳情&= #19981;明。在文獻上,朝'= 854;明顯有學校的設置,= ;始於高句麗小獸林王&#= 20108;年</span><span lang=3DEN-US>(372</span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-= family: "Times New Roman";mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>年</span><= span lang=3DEN-US>)</span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-fam= ily: "Times New Roman";mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>設立= 「太學」。(《三國= 1490;記》卷高句麗本紀ᦀ= 9;百濟學校不明,筆者&= #25512;測至遲在近肖古王= 178;代</span><span lang=3DEN-US>(346</span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-= family: "Times New Roman";mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>~</span><= span lang=3DEN-US>375</span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-f= amily: "Times New Roman";mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>年</span><= span lang=3DEN-US>)</span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-fam= ily: "Times New Roman";mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>宜有= 學校。新羅設學較晚= 5292;當始於神文王二年</span= ><span lang=3DEN-US>(682</span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-= family: "Times New Roman";mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>年</span><= span lang=3DEN-US>)</span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-fam= ily: "Times New Roman";mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>。茲= 以高句麗為例,《舊= 1776;書》卷上東夷高麗ࠑ= 9;云:「俗愛書籍。…&#= 8230;其書有五經及史記ӌ= 9;漢書、范曄後漢書、&= #19977;國志、孫盛晉春秋 = 289;玉篇、字統、字林,= ;又有文選,尤愛重之&#= 12290;」新羅的國學教材ʌ= 92;是以「周易、尚書、= 毛詩、禮記、春秋左= 7663;傳、文選,分而為ߔ= 3;業。」(《三國史記&= #12299;卷雜志職官上「國= 416;」條)然則朝鮮半島= ;各國設學以後,儒家&#= 32147;典是其基本教材,ī= 78;為明顯。</span></p> <p class=3Da4><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-family:"Ti= mes New Roman"; mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>日本方面&#= 65292;一般以為百濟博士ħ= 79;仁攜《論語》、《千= 字文》赴日,是儒教= 0659;入日本之始。其時໵= 1;在《日本書紀》是繫&= #26044;應神十五</span><span lang=3DEN-US>(284) </span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-fon= t-family: "Times New Roman";mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>、十= 六</span><span lang=3DEN-US>(285) </span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-fon= t-family: "Times New Roman";mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>年,= 但《日本書紀》從神= 1151;紀、應神紀到雄略ಀ= 0;二十年</span><span lang=3DEN-US>(201</span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-= family: "Times New Roman";mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>~</span><= span lang=3DEN-US>476</span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-f= amily: "Times New Roman";mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>年</span><= span lang=3DEN-US>)</span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-fam= ily: "Times New Roman";mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>之間= ,有關朝鮮三國的記= 0107;,尤其百濟方面,ࠥ= 4;紀年尚應加二甲子,&= #21363;一百二十年,這是= 240;為《日本書紀》的編= ;者在使用百濟史書時&#= 65292;任意偽作之故,這ą= 59;學界的共識。如此一= 來,百濟博士王仁赴= 6085;本之事,宜定為四ᦄ= 7;四、四O五年,也就&= #26159;五世紀初之際。日= 412;之有學校,則要遲至= ;七世紀後半,始有制&#= 24230;上的建立,到八世ŀ= 00;才充分展開。</span></p> <p class=3Da4><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-family:"Ti= mes New Roman"; mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>越南,自&#= 28450;至唐,一直是中國į= 40;一州,所以漢武帝興= 學校,在制度上自亦= 6969;用於越南,只是其ॣ= 0;縣學推行情形不明。&= #28450;末天下大亂,士子= 265;經籍紛紛尋求避難之= ;地,越南是其中之一&#= 12290;吳國建立,士燮出ž= 63;交州,禮賢下士,一= 時文風大盛,黎嵩《= 6234;鑑通考總論》讚曰ᦂ= 6;「士王習魯國之風流&= #65292;學問博洽,謙虛下= 763;,化國俗以詩書,淑= ;人心以禮樂,治國踰&#= 22235;十年,境內無事。{= 01;此是交州亦有儒風之= 明證。惟一般說來,= 0132;州一地屬於邊陲,ࠥ= 4;文教推行情形,常視&= #33391;吏上任而定。如杜= 935;度於南朝劉宋時期出= ;長交州,其任內「禁&#= 26039;淫祠,崇修學校。{= 01;(《宋書》卷杜氏傳= )越南在十世紀獨立= 4460;,由於內戰不已,௥= 2;至李朝聖宗時代始有&= #23416;校</span><span lang=3DEN-US>(1070</span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font= -family: "Times New Roman";mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>年</span><= span lang=3DEN-US>)</span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-fam= ily: "Times New Roman";mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>,中= 央曰:「國子監」,= 2320;方當亦有學校,詳ভ= 3;不明。《大越史記全&= #26360;》本紀全書卷</span><span lang=3DEN-US>3</span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-fam= ily: "Times New Roman";mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>李紀= 仁宗太寧四</span><span lang=3DEN-US>(1075)</span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-fon= t-family: "Times New Roman";mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>年二= 月條云:「詔選明經= 2289;博學,及試儒學三࣒= 0;。黎文盛中選,進侍&= #24093;學。」此處不但說= 126;越南在獨立之後仍有= ;中國式的官學,而且&#= 20063;實施中國式的科舉ʌ= 92;其學術以明經為主,= 亦無庸置疑。</span></p> <p class=3Da3 style=3D'text-indent:28.0pt;mso-char-indent-count:2.0;line-he= ight: normal'><span style=3D'font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:10.0pt;font-fami= ly: \83EF\5EB7\6977\66F8\9AD4W5'>3、律令法࠸= 6;<span lang=3DEN-US><o:p></o:p></span></span></p> <p class=3Da4><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-family:"Ti= mes New Roman"; mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>在隋唐時&#= 20195;的律令,本指國家į= 40;法制,律指刑法,令= 指制度(行政法);= 3601;法典性質而言,其र= 6;尚應包含格與式。以&= #24459;令分別代表刑法與"= 892;政法,始於西晉,其= ;前的秦漢時代,律令&#= 20027;要指刑法,行政法Ò= 63;混雜在間。我們一般= 說典章文物影響四鄰= 5292;所謂典章,在七、ࠤ= 3;世紀的用語,就是律&= #20196;。律令是現實國家= 046;度的反映,所以新君= ;即位,對於舊章常要&#= 21152;以整理,而有新的ô= 59;令公布,以代表一朝= 新制。茲以唐朝為例= 5292;其制定新律令者,ࣳ= 4;高祖的武德律令、太&= #23447;的貞觀律令、高宗= 340;永徽律令、玄宗的開= ;元七年律令、開元二&#= 21313;五年律令等。</span></p> <p class=3Da4><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-family:"Ti= mes New Roman"; mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>朝鮮半島&#= 30340;高句麗在三七三年ć= 66;頒行律令,新羅在五= 二O年也有頒布律令= 5292;內容不明。一九七ࠤ= 3;年在丹陽所發現的新&= #32645;赤城碑,其碑文提= 040;「赤城佃舍法」,足= ;見新羅在五二O年所&#= 38930;布的律令並非虛文z= 90;王氏高麗時代,其律= 令篇目及條文與唐律= 0196;頗多雷同;服屬元੏= 7;以後,也行用至正條&= #26684;。李氏朝鮮時代,= 505;用明律,另外還有《= ;經國大典》、《大典&#= 26371;通》等法典的編纂ʌ= 92;這些均受明律、明會= 典的影響甚大。</span></p> <p class=3Da4><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-family:"Ti= mes New Roman"; mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>日本方面&#= 65292;從《日本書紀》所Ů= 17;,可知六六八年有「= 近江令」、六八二年= 6377;「淨御原令」的公०= 7;,但此事迄今學界仍&= #26377;質疑。至七O一年= 844;布大寶律令、七五七= ;年公布養老律令,則&#= 20854;真實性已無可置疑z= 90;兩者主要是以唐永徽= 、開元七年律令為藍= 6412;,尤其是永徽律令Ӎ= 0;近年在奈良市平城宮&= #36986;址發掘出木簡斷片A= 292;有「醫疾第十九」的= ;木簡</span><span lang=3DEN-US>(2925</span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font= -family: "Times New Roman";mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>號</span><= span lang=3DEN-US>)</span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-fam= ily: "Times New Roman";mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>,是= 屬於大寶令篇目,在= 9178;老令,醫疾則為第ߚ= 8;十四,兩者有些許差&= #30064;。大寶令在今日已= 955;亡,但養老令大致保= ;存,唐令亦散亡;又&#= 22823;寶、養老律散亡,Ň= 80;唐律則保存。所以有= 關唐朝法制史的研究= 5292;取日本大寶、養老ߔ= 3;制加以互補,是非常&= #37325;要的作業。日本此= 460;的「律令國家」建設= ;並不成功,而進入武&#= 23478;政治時代,直至幕ò= 20;時期,其行用的諸法= 典,仍參照唐、明、= 8165;律使用。最近發現௚= 0;熊本藩刑法典《刑法&= #33609;書》,共八編九十= 845;條目一百五十餘條,= ;是寶曆十一年</span><span lang=3DEN-US>(1761</span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font= -family: "Times New Roman";mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>年</span><= span lang=3DEN-US>)</span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-fam= ily: "Times New Roman";mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>到明= 治三年</span><span lang=3DEN-US>(1870</span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font= -family: "Times New Roman";mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>年</span><= span lang=3DEN-US>)</span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-fam= ily: "Times New Roman";mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>的百= 多年間,熊本藩的刑= 0107;基本法,而且是明૟= 5;初年頒行《假刑律》&= #34253;本。《刑法草書》= 340;藍本,是用明律例,= ;《假刑律》除參照《&#= 21009;法草書》而外,也Ö= 43;照《大清律例彙纂》= ,所以明、清律影響= 4149;府及明治維新法制வ= 8;大。</span></p> <p class=3Da4><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-family:"Ti= mes New Roman"; mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>至於越南&#= 65292;在內屬時期,適用È= 13;國國內法,自無疑義= 。獨立以後,李朝太= 3447;時代曾撰成《刑書Ӎ= 9;三卷</span><span lang=3DEN-US>(1042</span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font= -family: "Times New Roman";mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>年</span><= span lang=3DEN-US>)</span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-fam= ily: "Times New Roman";mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>、陳= 朝太宗時代曾制定國= 6397;刑律</span><span lang=3DEN-US>(1230</span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font= -family: "Times New Roman";mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>年</span><= span lang=3DEN-US>)</span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-fam= ily: "Times New Roman";mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>,這= 些都受唐律的影響。= 0654;朝聖宗洪德年間</span><span lang=3DEN-US>(1470</span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font= -family: "Times New Roman";mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>~</span><= span lang=3DEN-US>1496</span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-= family: "Times New Roman";mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>年</span><= span lang=3DEN-US>)</span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-fam= ily: "Times New Roman";mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>,制= 定《刑律》六卷,其= 4459;文大都收錄在潘輝૤= 0;所編的《歷朝憲章類&= #35468;》,為今存越南最= 476;的法典。此一刑律,= ;也是深受唐、明律的&#= 24433;響。</span></p> <p class=3Da3 style=3D'text-indent:28.0pt;mso-char-indent-count:2.0;line-he= ight: normal'><span style=3D'font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:10.0pt;font-fami= ly: \83EF\5EB7\6977\66F8\9AD4W5'>4、科技<span lang=3DE= N-US><o:p></o:p></span></span></p> <p class=3Da4><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-family:"Ti= mes New Roman"; mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>此處的科&#= 25216;,特指見於中國文Ô= 70;要素中的天文、曆法= 、陰陽學、算學、醫= 3416;等科學與技術而言Ӎ= 0;在中國方面,這些科&= #25216;都是由官方傳授,= 035;至設學,例如天文、= ;曆法屬於官府學術,&#= 22312;唐廟屬於太史局學Ŝ= 99;,民間不可任意學習= ;陰陽學包含式占,= 1335;朝一度在中央官學ෑ= 3;館授學,在唐朝則屬&= #26044;太卜署學術;醫學= 660;於太醫署學術,惟在= ;地方州學,醫學則與&#= 32147;學並立;算學是由ê= 48;學的國子監傳授等。= 上述這些科技,共同= 0340;特點,就是由官方ࠑ= 9;授的學術,與一般所&= #35498;的科技有別。天文 = 289;曆法方面,與諸國奉= ;中朝正朔又有密切的&#= 38364;聯。</span></p> <p class=3Da4><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-family:"Ti= mes New Roman"; mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>例如新羅&#= 22312;六八二年創設國學É= 97;後,其學校規模,除= 經學教育以外,同時= 5373;有算學;到六九二ॲ= 0;,成立醫學;七四九&= #24180;,設置天文、漏刻= 338;士。王氏高麗王朝的= ;科舉制度,其雜業科&#= 30446;中設有醫、卜、地ĩ= 02;、算等。日本、百濟= 方面,在欽明十四年</s= pan><span lang=3DEN-US>(553</span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-= family: "Times New Roman";mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>年</span><= span lang=3DEN-US>)</span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-fam= ily: "Times New Roman";mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>六月= ,敕云:「(百濟)= 7291;博士、易博士、曆ࡕ= 8;士等,宜依番上下。&= #20170;上件色人正當相代= 180;月,宜付還使相代。= ;又,卜書、曆本、種&#= 31278;藥物,可付送。」ʌ= 88;《日本書紀》卷十九= )由此條記載,可知= 0845;世紀中葉,百濟支৾= 8;倭國科技專家,以作&= #28858;其朝廷的學術顧問A= 292;並已建立其博士輪番= ;制度。六九二年,日&#= 26412;也設置陰陽博士,Ò= 40;大寶、養老令撰成時= ,即在八世紀以後,= 6085;本在陰陽寮之下,ෑ= 3;有天文學、曆學、陰&= #38525;學諸科,並置博士= 945;授學生,其曆法,即= ;行用唐曆;在典藥寮&#= 20043;下,設置醫、針、ý= 53;摩、咒禁諸科,也都= 有博士、學生。其算= 3416;,依據大寶、養老ߣ= 6;的規定,是設置於大&= #23416;寮,這一點與新羅&= 647;同,因而有學者主張= ;日本的大學寮是學自&#= 26032;羅,相反的,新羅ê= 16;自日本也有可能。越= 南方面,在北屬中國= 6178;期,上述中國官方෥= 6;科技不可能在交州出&= #29694;。但因唐朝的州學A= 292;是將醫學與州學並置= ;,按理交州也當如此&#= 12290;獨立以後的越南,ß= 12;李仁宗時代,曾「試= 吏員以書、算、刑、= 4459;。」其天文、曆法ӌ= 9;陰陽學,仍奉中國之&= #27861;;其醫學,在國家 = 771;試科目中亦有其制。= ;</span></p> <p class=3Da3 style=3D'text-indent:28.0pt;mso-char-indent-count:2.0;line-he= ight: normal'><span style=3D'font-size:13.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:10.0pt;font-fami= ly: \83EF\5EB7\6977\66F8\9AD4W5'>5、佛教<span lang=3DE= N-US><o:p></o:p></span></span></p> <p class=3Da4><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-family:"Ti= mes New Roman"; mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>此處的佛&#= 25945;,指東亞諸國由中Þ= 83;傳入已是中國化的佛= 教及其藝術。其特色= 2914;下:一、奉誦漢譯Ӎ= 8;大藏經》;二、大乘&= #20315;教的盛行,尤其在= 776;代所成立的天台、華= ;嚴、淨土及禪宗等;&#= 19977;、造寺‧造像等寺༉= 8;建築與藝術;四、國&= #25945;化的傾向;五、影&= 911;儒教、道教乃至民間= ;信仰等。上述諸特質&#= 65292;均是東亞共通的。</spa= n></p> <p class=3Da2><span style=3D'font-family:DFKai-SB;mso-ascii-font-family:PMi= ngLiU; mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>二、東亞&#= 25991;化圈與教育的關係</spa= n></p> <p class=3DMsoNormal style=3D'text-indent:24.0pt;mso-char-indent-count:2.0'= ><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-h= ansi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-font-kerning:0pt'>東亞地區= 0309;以會形成中國文化ࢴ= 0;?這個問題,就不是&= #19977;言二語能解答的。= 001;於七、八世紀之際所= ;形成的東亞文化圈與&#= 26481;亞政治圈(或謂東É= 26;世界)是重疊的、一= 致的,所以,對於中= 2283;文化圈的形成問題ᦁ= 2;有以為非是文化獨自&= #36939;動的結果,而是在= 197;中國為中心的政治機= ;構的基礎上所實現的&#= 12290;</span><a style=3D'mso-footnote-id:ftn14' href=3D"#_ftn14" name=3D"_ftnref14" title= =3D""><span class=3DMsoFootnoteReference><span lang=3DEN-US style=3D'mso-font-kerning:0= pt'><span style=3D'mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span class=3DMsoFootnoteReference><span lang=3DEN-US style=3D'font-size:12.0pt;f= ont-family: "Times New Roman";mso-fareast-font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ansi-language:EN-US; mso-fareast-language:ZH-TW;mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[14]</span></span><![en= dif]></span></span></span></a><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-h= ansi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-font-kerning:0pt'>也有由外= 2283;自主觀點,論述中ࢴ= 3;文化是伴隨政治、軍&= #20107;而來,其影響常是$= 000;面的。</span><a style=3D'mso-footnote-id:ftn15' href=3D"#_ftn15" name=3D"_ftnref15" title= =3D""><span class=3DMsoFootnoteReference><span lang=3DEN-US style=3D'mso-font-kerning:0= pt'><span style=3D'mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span class=3DMsoFootnoteReference><span lang=3DEN-US style=3D'font-size:12.0pt;f= ont-family: "Times New Roman";mso-fareast-font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ansi-language:EN-US; mso-fareast-language:ZH-TW;mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[15]</span></span><![en= dif]></span></span></span></a><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-h= ansi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-font-kerning:0pt'>言下之意= 5292;似以為中國文化能ࢷ= 2;外地生根、發展,是&= #30001;於政治力乃至軍事= 147;推展的結果;而中國= ;文化圈所以能夠形成&#= 65292;是由於東亞完成以È= 13;國為中心的政治體制= 的緣故。易言之,從= 5576;外國的觀點而言,ߑ= 3;國文化圈的形成,是&= #20182;動的、外塑的;形= 104;的動因,以政治為主= ;,文化為次。這樣的&#= 30475;法,從某一時期(å= 14;隋唐)、或某一側面= (如由冊封所形成的= 7861;制關係)而言,可೦= 1;有部分事實,但仍然&= #26377;再檢討的必要。</span><span lang=3DEN-US style=3D'mso-font-kerning:0pt'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=3DMsoNormal style=3D'text-indent:24.0pt;mso-char-indent-count:2.0'= ><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-h= ansi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-font-kerning:0pt'>因為政治= 9636;制的出現,必須以੘= 1;亞諸國成立國家為前&= #25552;;而政治體制的運= 316;,又必須以中國國力= ;強盛作後盾;兩者缺&#= 19968;,政治體制(或謂{= 00;冊封體制」)勢必變= 形。例如先秦、前漢= 0043;際,朝鮮、日本地ࡓ= 2;尚未形成國家,自無&= #25152;謂政治體制;但此= 178;至少漢字已在該地流= ;通,其證物就是前述&#= 12300;明刀」貨幣在朝鮮ş= 99;北部的行用,以及王= 莽時代的「貨泉」、= 2300;貨布」等貨幣,在ਰ= 5;本九州至畿內的彌生&= #24335;遺跡的出土。再如= 841;宋之際,國力衰微,= ;「冊封體制」不易展&#= 38283;,但中國文化仍在Ē= 92;一地區傳播。直至日= 本明治維新之初,東= 0126;的政治體制已解體ᦁ= 2;但仍用明、清律來制&= #23450;其新律。</span><a style=3D'mso-footnote-id:ftn16' href=3D"#_ftn16" name=3D"_ftnref16" title= =3D""><span class=3DMsoFootnoteReference><span lang=3DEN-US style=3D'mso-font-kerning:0= pt'><span style=3D'mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span class=3DMsoFootnoteReference><span lang=3DEN-US style=3D'font-size:12.0pt;f= ont-family: "Times New Roman";mso-fareast-font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ansi-language:EN-US; mso-fareast-language:ZH-TW;mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[16]</span></span><![en= dif]></span></span></span></a><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-h= ansi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-font-kerning:0pt'>又如中國= 1270;的佛教要素,是以ଝ= 0;譯《大藏經》的行用&= #20197;及中國式的佛寺建= 689;為前提,此要素的展= ;開,未必一定與政治&#= 39636;制有關。這些事象ʌ= 92;說明文化圈的形成,= 以政治體制作基礎,= 2266;然是要件之一,但༣= 0;為絕對條件。文化圈&= #30340;形成,除政治要件= 043;外,仍宜由文化交流= ;去理解。</span></p> <p class=3Da4><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-family:"Ti= mes New Roman"; mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>以上所述&#= 20116;要素,可說是經過ž= 63;年累月的文化交流而= 出現的,其動力主要= 6159;靠各國本身的教育ߚ= 7;業而完成的,這一點&= #33287;同時代政治秩序的= 314;立,多半由中國主動= ;而他國為被動的情形&#= 19981;同。各國推展教育É= 07;業的第一步,就是認= 識漢字,起初尚包括= 8450;音,即連佛門也不ߴ= 3;外。如日本過去與中&= #22283;南朝交流較為密切A= 292;所以要學習吳音;隋= ;唐建立以後,首都在&#= 38263;安,則以「漢音」Ġ= 58;正,到七九三年,即= 日本延曆十二年四二= 1313;八日,天皇下制云ᦂ= 6;「自今以後,年分度&= #32773;,非習漢音,勿令= 471;度。」(《日本紀略= ;.前篇》卷十三)這&#= 26159;佛教界學習經典必ƅ= 20;先通漢音的例子,當= 然此後逐漸改以本地= 8899;來讀經。無論如何ᦁ= 2;先讀漢字是僧俗界共&= #21516;的學習過程,然後 = 722;讀漢文。透過公、私= ;教育事業,僧俗界將&#= 28450;文典籍的學術逐次į= 32;揚,終於出現中國文= 化圈。</span></p> <p class=3Da4><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-family:"Ti= mes New Roman"; mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>再者,五&#= 35201;素之間,皆與儒教ć= 77;關,這是因為中國文= 化是以儒家文化為主= 7969;之故。例如認識漢ढ= 3;的童蒙教材,不脫儒&= #25945;題材;律令法制自= 185;以後已走向儒家化,= ;至隋唐律令尤為明顯&#= 65307;科技中的天文曆法ʌ= 92;本是為政治服務,以= 及早探知天象變化,= 2780;求人事上的對應措ਬ= 5;,這種陰陽災異觀,&= #20358;自陰陽家,但陰陽= 478;出自儒,所以廣義而= ;言,仍與儒家思想有&#= 33707;大關係。至於算學ʌ= 92;屬於實用性,尤其自= 漢以來土地分配不均= 5292;相當困擾政府,算थ= 6;人才的培養,以從事&= #19976;量土地等實務,確= 526;必要;北魏至隋唐的= ;均田法,需要更多的&#= 31639;學人才,所以算學ß= 12;隋唐頗為發達,當與= 實際社會經濟問題有= 8364;。至於醫學的發達ᦁ= 2;則與道家有關。而佛&= #38272;中的高僧,常精通= 806;典,尤其是儒家經典= ;。</span></p> <p class=3Da4><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-family:"Ti= mes New Roman"; mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>整個說來&#= 65292;東亞文化圈的形成Ō= 87;儒教關係最為密切;= 而其推展又有賴於教= 2946;事業,教育事業之ࠣ= 9;涵,本多從事儒學教&= #32946;。因此,若說東亞= 991;化圈的形成以儒教因= ;素為最重要,並不為&#= 36942;。這種情形,與中ő= 75;文化是以儒教為骨髓= 的情況雷同,兩者類= 0284;,並非為偶然的現ฉ= 7;。</span></p> <p class=3Da2><span style=3D'font-family:DFKai-SB;mso-ascii-font-family:PMi= ngLiU; mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>三、東亞&#= 25945;育圈的形成與發展</spa= n></p> <p class=3Da4><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-family:"Ti= mes New Roman"; mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>東亞文化&#= 22280;的形成,其動力主Š= 01;是靠各國本身的教育= 事業而完成的。這些= 5945;育事業,到七、八ߏ= 0;紀之際,隨著唐朝普&= #36941;推廣「廟學」教育= 046;度以後,「廟學」制= ;遂成為此後傳統學制&#= 30340;基本型態。不但此ô= 60;宋、元、明、清諸朝= 的學制是如此,即連= 7168;近之韓國、越南以ࡡ= 0;日本的傳統學制也是&= #22914;此。因此,「廟學 = 301;制的成立,可以說是= ;東亞諸國傳統的共通&#= 22522;本要素之一,在我Þ= 83;以及東亞教育史上實= 是一項重要的發展。= 1558;者將這種文化的共๩= 0;現象,稱之為「東亞&= #25945;育圈」的形成。</span></p> <p class=3Da4><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-family:"Ti= mes New Roman"; mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>「廟學」&#= 25945;育制度的特色,指ă= 45;育園地主要是由祭祀= 空間與教學空間兩者= 7083;成,以達天人合一௚= 0;境界。後來書院教育&= #30340;發達,各國仍與中= 283;一樣,不脫「廟學」= ;形式。至於佛教傳入&#= 21508;國後的教學,皆在ë= 46;院的講堂展開,依然= 是「廟學」形式。</span></p> <p class=3Da4><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-family:"Ti= mes New Roman"; mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>由於各國&#= 25945;育事業的展開,是×= 08;國主動仿效中國的模= 式而進行,並非中國= 9992;政治或軍事力量強࠸= 6;推行的結果。因此,&= #33258;從中國文化要素進= 837;此區,到東亞文化圈= ;的成立、發展,主動&#= 21147;量始終操持在各國ʌ= 92;只是其間的演變或改= 革,仍不免受中國的= 4433;響。此時的中國文ࡏ= 0;所以能影響各國,應&= #38750;來自政治或軍事的= 041;脅,而是中國文化在= ;此時所擁有的優勢性&#= 33287;先進性。往後中國Þ= 83;力時有消長,東亞政= 治秩序也時有調整,= 0294;無礙於東亞文化圈િ= 1;久不墜,究其原因,&= #30070;是「東亞教育圈」 = 380;續存在的緣故。</span></p> <p class=3DMsoBodyTextIndent3 style=3D'text-indent:29.4pt'><span style=3D'f= ont-size: 12.0pt;font-family:DFKai-SB;mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>ӎ= 0;</span><span style=3D'font-size:12.0pt;font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-family:"Times= New Roman"; mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>東亞教育&#= 22280;</span><span style=3D'font-size:12.0pt;font-family:DFKai-SB;mso-hansi-font-family:"Times= New Roman"'>」</span><span style=3D'font-size:12.0pt;font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-family:"Times= New Roman"; mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>在共通的&#= 12300;廟學」制建構下,Ð= 54;教育發展的特質,可= 有如下幾項:1.漢= 3383;教育、2.儒學教ೞ= 6;、3.養士教育、4&= #65294;成聖教育。後三項= 340;成立,也還是以公、= ;私或僧、俗方面實施&#= 28450;字、漢文教育為前ÿ= 52;,所以中國文化圈或= 東亞教育圈也可稱為= 8450;字文化圈。至於</span><span style=3D'font-size:12.0pt;font-family:PMingLiU;mso-hansi-font-family:"Times= New Roman"'>「儒學教育」,১= 1;教育內容以儒家經典&= #28858;主;「養士教育」A= 292;指教育目的在於培養= ;吏才;「成聖教育」&#= 65292;指教育理想在於成ň= 54;成賢。所以「</span><span style=3D'font-size:12.0pt;font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-family:"Times= New Roman"; mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>東亞教育&#= 22280;</span><span style=3D'font-size:12.0pt;font-family:PMingLiU;mso-hansi-font-family:"Times= New Roman"'>」</span><span style=3D'font-size:12.0pt;font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-family:"Times= New Roman"; mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>的教育特&#= 36074;,簡單說就是實施Ï= 54;教主義教育。</span><span lang=3DEN-US style=3D'font-size:12.0pt'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=3DMsoBodyTextIndent3 style=3D'text-indent:29.4pt'><span style=3D'f= ont-size: 12.0pt;font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-han= si-font-family: "Times New Roman"'>學校以文廟為主= 軸而展開儒教主義教= 2946;的作用為何?「學ӎ= 1;(或講堂)則是求知&= #12289;力行的地方。廟學= 013;的師者,正是教導諸= ;生來實踐上述諸工夫&#= 12290;韓愈說:「師者,û= 52;以傳道、授業、解惑= 也。」這種人師(傳= 6947;)、經師(授業、෉= 9;惑)的雙重責任說,&= #20006;非韓愈所獨創,實= 159;繼承過去的歷史背景= ;而來。此即學校教育&#= 36879;過「廟學」的建制ʌ= 92;使為師者身兼經師與= 人師,可視為聖賢的= 1270;身,作為學生學習௚= 0;榜樣;而學子志學,&= #36817;程目標在於成為君= 376;,終極目標在於成聖= ;成賢。成聖(如堯舜&#= 65289;的工夫,當即《大ê= 16;》所說的,在於脩身= 、齊家、治國、平天= 9979;。佛寺的「廟學」ਢ= 5;育目標,似亦類似,&= #20854;近程目標在於成為!= 769;薩,終極目標在於成= ;佛。成佛的工夫,當&#= 22914;<span style=3D'color:black'>《菩薩戒經》û= 52;說的,</span>在於<span style=3D'color:black'>自性清淨、</span>෯= 2;心見性。</span><span lang=3DEN-US style=3D'font-size:12.0pt'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=3DMsoBodyTextIndent3><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii= -font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>學子= </span><span style=3D'font-size:12.0pt;font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-family:"Times= New Roman"; mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>平時與廟&#= 20013;聖賢為鄰,瞻仰為ñ= 07;之人格、學問,乃體= 會步登聖賢堂奧之境= 6159;有可能的,</span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-h= ansi-font-family: "Times New Roman"'>這也是東亞傳統= 共通的成聖教育特質</s= pan><span style=3D'font-size:12.0pt;font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-family:"Times= New Roman"; mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>。誠如宋&#= 26397;周子(敦頤)所云ʍ= 06;</span><span lang=3DEN-US style=3D'font-size:12.0pt'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=3Da9 style=3D'margin-left:36.0pt'><span style=3D'font-size:12.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:10.0pt;font-family:DFKai-SB;mso-ascii-font-family:"Times= New Roman"; mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>聖希天,&#= 36066;希聖,士希賢。</span><span lang=3DEN-US style=3D'font-size:12.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:10.0pt'><o:p></o:= p></span></p> <p class=3DMsoNormal><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-fam= ily: "Times New Roman";mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>又云= :</span></p> <p class=3Da9 style=3D'margin-left:36.0pt'><span style=3D'font-size:12.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:10.0pt;font-family:DFKai-SB;mso-ascii-font-family:"Times= New Roman"; mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>志伊尹之&#= 25152;志,學顏子之所學ʌ= 92;過則聖,及則賢,不= 及則亦不失於令名。= 5288;《周子全書》卷</span><span lang=3DEN-US style=3D'font-size:12.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:10.0pt'>2</span><= span style=3D'font-size:12.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:10.0pt;font-family:DFKai-SB; mso-ascii-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Ro= man"'>〈志學章〉)</span><span lang=3DEN-US style=3D'font-size:12.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:10.0pt'><o:p></o:= p></span></p> <p class=3DMsoNormal><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-fam= ily: "Times New Roman";mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>周子= 的希聖希賢說,影響= 6085;後教育理念甚大。ߴ= 3;如宋代四大書院之一&= #30340;湖南嶽麓書院,除= 314;有文廟以外,並有崇= ;道祠,以供奉朱熹(&#= 26214;菴)、張栻(南軒ʌ= 89;兩先生,六君子堂以= 供奉地方良吏。明末= 0643;衷的〈嶽麓書院祠ఠ= 0;記〉說:</span></p> <p class=3Da9 style=3D'margin-left:36.0pt'><span style=3D'font-size:12.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:10.0pt;font-family:DFKai-SB;mso-ascii-font-family:"Times= New Roman"; mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>院舊有祠&#= 65292;以祀晦翁、南軒。̷= 0;…文公(張栻)集諸&#= 20754;大之成,以明聖賢È= 43;道,講學于茲,吾師= 焉;安撫(朱熹)于= 3586;,吾師焉。……夫所= 謂過化者存焉,吾祀= 0043;。(《萬曆.重脩य़= 7;書院圖志》卷</span><span lang=3DEN-US style=3D'font-size:12.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:10.0pt'>8</span><= span style=3D'font-size:12.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:10.0pt;font-family:DFKai-SB; mso-ascii-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Ro= man"'>)</span><span lang=3DEN-US style=3D'font-size:12.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:10.0pt'><o:p></o:= p></span></p> <p class=3DMsoNormal><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-fam= ily: "Times New Roman";mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>此處= 是說明書院建置祠宇= 5292;專祀先賢,以作為ࣤ= 3;子學習之典範,萬古&= #27969;芳。足見在教育園= 320;裏,祭與學是分不開= ;關係的,兩者皆成為&#= 12300;學禮」的主要內涵z= 90;清.龐鍾璐《文廟祀= 典考》〈奏摺〉云:</s= pan></p> <p class=3Da9 style=3D'margin-left:36.0pt'><span style=3D'font-size:12.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:10.0pt;font-family:DFKai-SB;mso-ascii-font-family:"Times= New Roman"; mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>學校崇祀&#= 23380;子,附以先賢先儒ʌ= 92;使天下之士,觀感奮= 興,肅然生其敬畏之= 4515;,油然動其效法之ঘ= 5;,其典至鉅,其意甚&= #28145;。</span><span lang=3DEN-US style=3D'font-size:12.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:10.0pt'><o:p></o:= p></span></p> <p class=3DMsoNormal><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-fam= ily: "Times New Roman";mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>韓國= 李朝大儒李退溪(本= 1517;滉,</span><span lang=3DEN-US>1501~70</span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-fo= nt-family: "Times New Roman";mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>年)= 在〈迎鳳書院記〉云= 5306;</span></p> <p class=3Da9 style=3D'margin-left:36.0pt'><span style=3D'font-size:12.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:10.0pt;font-family:DFKai-SB;mso-ascii-font-family:"Times= New Roman"; mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>瞻祠宇而&#= 24819;函丈,麗澤相資,É= 90;山莫虧,則高者可以= 入室而升堂,下者猶= 9981;失為吉人脩士。(ਟ= 0;入《陶山全書》卷</span><s= pan lang=3DEN-US style=3D'font-size:12.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:10.0pt'>59</span>= <span style=3D'font-size:12.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:10.0pt;font-family:DFKai-SB; mso-ascii-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Ro= man"'>〈記〉)</span><span lang=3DEN-US style=3D'font-size:12.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:10.0pt'><o:p></o:= p></span></p> <p class=3DMsoNormal><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-fam= ily: "Times New Roman";mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>所以= 韓國到李朝時代有十= 0843;儒入祀聖廟。日本૪= 1;阪孝綽在文政四</span><span lang=3DEN-US>(1821)</span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-fon= t-family: "Times New Roman";mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>年,= 有「聖廟配享議」,= 5696;請吉備真備與菅原๮= 7;真二賢配享津藩藩校&= #65292;曰:</span></p> <p class=3Da9 style=3D'margin-left:36.0pt'><span style=3D'font-size:12.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:10.0pt;font-family:DFKai-SB;mso-ascii-font-family:"Times= New Roman"; mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>夫宣聖廟&#= 22530;之禮,自唐以來奉ƅ= 91;、閔等十哲配享,或= 侑顏、曾、思、孟,= 1448;從祀歷朝名儒諸賢ᦁ= 2;皆崇其功德於斯文也&= #12290;伏維國朝文教之丕&= 369;,吉備相公實為稱首= ;,菅相公繼而興隆,&#= 34269;文斐然成章,其有ä= 23;造於吾道,並為百世= 之宗師,後學之被遺= 8580;,不可不尊戴也。ߞ= 0;師二公神廟,俱以「&= #32854;」稱,良有以夫。A= 288;註曰:「吉備聖靈,= ;見拾芥抄。菅神稱聖&#= 24287;,見本朝文粹大江Ô= 81;房文。」)且宣聖乘= 桴而來,則二公之見= 4709;,其猶當時二三子ਹ= 8;。是以敢請姑舍十哲&= #35576;賢,而特以二公配= 139;焉。</span><span lang=3DEN-US style=3D'font-size:12.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:10.0pt'><o:p></o:= p></span></p> <p class=3DMsoNormal><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-fam= ily: "Times New Roman";mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>津藩= 藩校在津阪孝綽議後= 5292;乃由吉備真備、菅࡜= 7;道真二賢取代中國的&= #21313;哲配享聖廟。宣聖= 363;孔子也。其實在各藩= ;校均有配享宣聖廟的&#= 24478;祀制,制度不一,Ű= 89;方面與中、韓略有不= 同。吉備真備、菅原= 6947;真二賢在社會既然॥= 0;經「聖稱」,並列廟&= #24237;,實際也是「成聖 = 301;概念的具體表現。越= ;南在陳朝時,先後以&#= 22823;儒朱子安、張漢超z= 89;杜子平從祀文廟。</span><a style=3D'mso-footnote-id:ftn17' href=3D"#_ftn17" name=3D"_ftnref17" title= =3D""><span class=3DMsoFootnoteReference><span lang=3DEN-US><span style=3D'mso-special-= character: footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span class=3DMsoFootnoteReference><span lang=3DEN-US style=3D'font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-fa= reast-font-family: PMingLiU;mso-font-kerning:1.0pt;mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-languag= e: ZH-TW;mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[17]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></= span></a><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-h= ansi-font-family: "Times New Roman"'>以上是東亞諸國= 廟學施行成聖教育的= 6775;概。</span></p> <p class=3DMsoNormal style=3D'text-indent:29.4pt;mso-char-indent-count:2.45= '><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-h= ansi-font-family: "Times New Roman"'>廟學制的建置,= 表面看來有類於西歐= 0013;世紀的大學,尤其ਢ= 5;會興辦的學校,如法&= #22283;的巴梨大學,但是= 841;者仍有莫大的差異。= ;後者仍具有宗教性,&#= 29978;至隸於教會;但中Þ= 83;乃至東亞諸國的廟學= ,則直隸於國家或政= 4220;,王權至高無上,ढ= 0;子雖是廟中的主神,&= #22312;禮制上不敵君王的= 447;廟,只是孔子代表學= ;問之神,並非宗教之&#= 31070;,所以孔子被尊為{= 00;百世帝王之師」,但= 不是上帝,也不是有= 7714;必應的百廟諸神之ߌ= 8;,所以平時不供民間&= #33180;拜祈求。易言之,= 312;教育意義下,孔子以= ;及配享等諸先賢,藉&#= 24287;制將知識與教育的Ē= 02;威性提昇至神格,以= 超越世俗的王權。這= 1278;神格是知性的,是ߟ= 4;間的典範,供士人學&= #32722;、效法,將來甚至= 134;可並列聖賢,但非屬= ;於祈求未來世的宗教&#= 25110;神學。中西雙方雖ć= 77;此差異,但也有相似= 的地方,那就是透過= 9968;定的儀式而興起學ೈ= 2;、效法之志,就此儀&= #24335;而言,實具有一定= 340;宗教性和繁瑣性。但= ;在西歐經過文藝復興&#= 24460;,使「大學」的專č= 89;性團體或行會性質得= 以進一步發揮,</span><a style=3D'mso-footnote-id:ftn18' href=3D"#_ftn18" name=3D"_ftnref18" title= =3D""><span class=3DMsoFootnoteReference><span lang=3DEN-US><span style=3D'mso-special-= character: footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span class=3DMsoFootnoteReference><span lang=3DEN-US style=3D'font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-fa= reast-font-family: PMingLiU;mso-font-kerning:1.0pt;mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-languag= e: ZH-TW;mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[18]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></= span></a><span lang=3DEN-US> </span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-fam= ily: "Times New Roman";mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>逐漸= 擺脫其宗教性和繁瑣= 4615;特色。在中國,因୅= 8;教育一直依附在皇權&= #20043;下發展,所以教育&= 614;然力求自主性,終究= ;不脫其為政治活動的&#= 19968;部分。於是教育活Ô= 05;所具有的宗教性和繁= 瑣性,呈現兩面性,= 9968;方面成為政治控制௚= 0;工具,另一方面也成&= #28858;教育自主的護身符A= 292;連帝王都不敢違抗孔= ;聖。廟學制的這種弔&#= 35437;作用,使它能在中Þ= 83;王朝不斷更替之際,= 持續一千數百年之久= 2290;若不拘泥於「廟」௚= 0;硬體建築的出現,而&= #20197;其祭祀禮儀活動作 = 771;量時,亦即學祭教育= ;的施行,則有二千年&#= 20197;上的歷史。所以中Þ= 83;在政治方面雖有不斷= 更替的王朝,但另有= 9981;變的學問神──至聖= 先師,支配社會秩序= 2290;東亞諸國在政治與ਢ= 5;育發展過程中,對於&= #23380;聖的尊崇,當無二!= 268;。此一特質,在中外= ;教育史上堪稱異數。</= span></p> <p class=3DMsoNormal style=3D'text-indent:29.4pt;mso-char-indent-count:2.45= '><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>= 799;儒教主義教育,對士= ;子而言,有時不免成&#= 28858;兩難狀態,如養士Ō= 87;成聖實難兼顧。但官= 私學教育實施結果,= 1487;謂各取所需。教育௚= 0;發展,仍然有其彈性&= #65292;而為東亞諸國吸收= 006;發展各自特色。</span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-h= ansi-font-family: "Times New Roman"'>今日東亞諸國人= 見面,即使不相識,= 6879;過筆談,亦顯得格ࣨ= 6;親切,其歷史背景,&= #23601;是傳統時代有其共$= 890;基本教養之故也。</span>= </p> <p class=3Da2><span style=3D'font-family:DFKai-SB;mso-ascii-font-family:PMi= ngLiU; mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>四、東亞&#= 25991;化、教育圈與政治ĸ= 09;序</span></p> <p class=3Da4><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-family:"Ti= mes New Roman"; mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>討論東亞&#= 20849;通的文化共相時,Ç= 81;能忽略東亞各地區所= 具有獨自的特殊性,= 0197;及文化傳播的限度Ӎ= 0;例如東亞各國後來都&= #21109;建自己的文字,只= 159;上層社會仍以漢文為= ;主。又如中國實施律&#= 20196;時,其實是以律最Ġ= 58;發達,宋以後已不再= 全面性整理令;反觀= 1516;時代的日本,則以ߣ= 6;較為發達,這當是今&= #26085;所見的日本律已經= 955;亡而令大致保存下來= ;的原因之一,中國則&#= 21453;是。再如韓、日、Ū= 34;之政府組織,雖仿自= 中國,但均較中國規= 7169;小,這是順應其國ভ= 3;的緣故。又,儒學方&= #38754;,中國在宋以後,= 266;然以朱子學為主流,= ;但朱子學以外,還有&#= 38525;明學;在朝鮮、日Ĉ= 12;,只盛行朱子學,陽= 明學則被拒。至於佛= 5945;方面,中國因為專࠸= 6;皇權強固,所以沒有&= #20986;現如日本所見的法= 579;道鏡政權</span><span lang=3DEN-US>(764</span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-= family: "Times New Roman";mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>~</span><= span lang=3DEN-US>770</span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-f= amily: "Times New Roman";mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>年</span><= span lang=3DEN-US>)</span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-fam= ily: "Times New Roman";mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>;中= 國科舉制度中並沒有= 3526;施像朝鮮高麗王朝৓= 2;施行的僧科考試制度&= #65292;也沒有像越南李朝 = 289;陳朝的三教考試制度= ;。另外,各國相互間&#= 65292;則有其差異性存在ʌ= 92;正如《禮記‧王制》&= #25152;說的:「中國戎夷A= 292;五方之民,皆有性也= ;,不可推移也。」所&#= 35586;「性」,孔穎達釋ć= 52;:「稟性自然」。也= 就是說,傳統東亞地= 1312;在汲取中國文化時ᦁ= 2;並無喪失其本地習俗&= #21450;其特殊性,這是因= 858;各國在攝取中國文化= ;時,如前所述,主要&#= 26159;透過當地的教育事č= 89;,而使文化生根發展= ,並非來自外在政治= 1147;壓迫的緣故。</span></p> <p class=3Da4><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-family:"Ti= mes New Roman"; mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>但是政治&#= 31209;序的建立,</span><a style=3D'mso-footnote-id:ftn19' href=3D"#_ftn19" name=3D"_ftnref19" title= =3D""><span class=3DMsoFootnoteReference><span lang=3DEN-US><span style=3D'mso-special-= character: footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span class=3DMsoFootnoteReference><span lang=3DEN-US style=3D'font-size:12.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:10.0pt;font-famil= y:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-langua= ge: ZH-TW;mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[19]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></= span></a><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-h= ansi-font-family: "Times New Roman"'>則由強盛者主導= ,所以成為主動與被= 1205;的關係。通常的情ૠ= 1;下,主導力量是在中&= #22283;。中國所要建立的= 919;治秩序,即以傳統的= ;天下觀念,建立其天&#= 19979;秩序,四鄰諸國主Ô= 05;或被動地參加這一個= 秩序;四鄰諸國進而= 0063;以天下觀念來建立ࠥ= 4;自我的天下秩序。尤&= #20854;是東亞地區,因為%= 117;是屬於農耕社會,所= ;以天下觀念與天下秩&#= 24207;較容易在這些地區ë= 26;施。</span></p> <p class=3Da4><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-family:"Ti= mes New Roman"; mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>所謂天下&#= 35264;念,即周人所謂:</spa= n><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-family:DFKai-SB;mso-hansi-font= -family: "Times New Roman"'>「溥天之下,莫= 非王土;率土之濱,= 3707;非王臣」(《詩經Ӎ= 9;</span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'> = 296;小雅.北山〉</span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-family:DFKai-SB;mso-hansi-font= -family: "Times New Roman"'>)的王土、王臣= 觀念;以及所謂:「</s= pan><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-h= ansi-font-family: "Times New Roman"'>天無二日,土無= 二王」(《禮記.曾= 3376;問》)的唯一王者ෆ= 4;念。所謂天下秩序,&= #21363;經過周、秦、漢諸= 178;期所摸索出來的政治= ;秩序。這個秩序,即&#= 24314;立在以中國天子為×= 31;、父,萬民四夷為臣= 、子的公、私關係。= 6044;是在中國天下秩序ߔ= 3;下,以京師為中心,&= #24314;立了內臣、外臣、= 981;臣三個同心圓的政治= ;秩序結構。中國至少&#= 21040;十世紀為止,努力Š= 01;實現這個秩序所實施= 的統治方法,是對內= 3251;實施</span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-family:DFKai-SB;mso-hansi-font= -family: "Times New Roman"'>「個別人身支配= 」,對外臣</span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-h= ansi-font-family: "Times New Roman"'>實施</span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingL= iU; mso-ascii-font-family:DFKai-SB;mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>= 2300;君長人身支配」,ऴ= 5;於不臣者,將設法予&= #20197;外臣化,或者接受= 013;國天子的</span><span style=3D'font-family:DFKai-SB;mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'> = 300;</span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-family:DFKai-SB;mso-hansi-font= -family: "Times New Roman"'>德化</span><span style=3D'font-family:DFKai-= SB; mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>」</span><span style=3D'font= -family: PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-family:DFKai-SB;mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Ro= man"'>感召。為了實現這Ì= 91;統治方法,作為指導= 的政治原理,從漢以= 4460;的文獻看來當是以</span= ><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-h= ansi-font-family: "Times New Roman"'>孔子所說的德、= 禮、政、刑等四項要= 2032;,加以妥善運用,೎= 0;成為結合原理、統治&= #21407;理、親疏原理、德= 270;原理,進而建立中國= ;的天下秩序。</span></p> <p class=3Da4><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-family:"Ti= mes New Roman"; mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>所謂結合&#= 21407;理,指君臣、父子×= 17;分的建立,以及依據= 此名分所設定的權利= 2681;務關係(如恩澤與খ= 4;信,冊封與朝貢等)<= /span><a style=3D'mso-footnote-id:ftn20' href=3D"#_ftn20" name=3D"_ftnref20" title= =3D""><span class=3DMsoFootnoteReference><span lang=3DEN-US><span style=3D'mso-special-= character: footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span class=3DMsoFootnoteReference><span lang=3DEN-US style=3D'font-size:12.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:10.0pt;font-famil= y:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-langua= ge: ZH-TW;mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[20]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></= span></a><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-h= ansi-font-family: "Times New Roman"'>,是政也是禮的= 運用;統治原理則為= 5919;、刑的運用,親疏࡜= 7;理是政也是禮的運用&= #65292;德化原理則為政、= 503;的運用。這樣的天下= ;秩序,理論上在周代&#= 30340;封建制已達於完備ʌ= 92;實際的施行,除秦代= 不採用封建的父子結= 1512;原理以外,各時代ߡ= 3;隨著其國力的大小而&= #26178;有調整。盛世時,= 914;漢、唐、明、清等,= ;這些要素與原理可獲&#= 24471;充分實現;衰世時ʌ= 92;如兩宋以及各朝代末= 期,這些要素與原理= 1047;能實現一部份。但୐= 1;論如何,充分實現這&= #20123;要素與原理,可說= 159;漢代以來各朝努力的= ;目標。</span></p> <p class=3DMsoNormal style=3D'text-indent:24.0pt;mso-char-indent-count:2.0; line-height:12.0pt'><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-fami= ly: "Times New Roman";mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>當中= 國天子在運作這些原= 9702;時,是否臣民四夷๿= 7;瞭解其道理?這是很&= #38627;回答</span></p> <p class=3DMsoNormal style=3D'line-height:12.0pt'><span style=3D'font-famil= y:PMingLiU; mso-ascii-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Ro= man"'>的問題。常理而言ʌ= 92;在中國既然是經過長= 期累積經驗而得,臣= 7665;四夷自然不可能通๩= 0;領會,尤其四夷君長&= #65292;在處理對中國事務= 178;,需要精通漢文者(= ;起初常是自大陸移民&#= 32780;來的)協助是可理Š= 99;的。當然也不排除君= 王本人的漢文教養,= 6889;就關係到帝王學的ࢇ= 9;題。茲以日本為例,&= #12298;宋書.東夷倭國》#= 352;載宋順帝昇明二年</span>= <span lang=3DEN-US>(478</span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-= family: "Times New Roman";mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>年</span><= span lang=3DEN-US>)</span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-fam= ily: "Times New Roman";mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>,由= 於高句麗經常阻擋倭= 2283;使臣行進「天路」ᦀ= 8;朝貢中國),倭武王&= #20035;遣使上表,請劉宋= 013;國能懲罰高句麗之「= ;無道」。其上表文中&#= 25552;到:「封國偏遠,Ë= 16;藩於外。」「歸崇天= 極,道逕百濟」;「= 4093;德覆載,摧此強敵ӎ= 1;云云。對於倭武王,&= #23416;界一般以為是雄略= 825;皇。此時的倭國,是= ;以封國自居,既曰「&#= 20316;藩於外」,就是外Ō= 51;。而所謂天極、帝德= ,均指中國天子,即= 5509;受中國天子的德化Ӎ= 0;這樣的漢文造詣,恐&= #20986;自在倭國的漢人,= 294;表文的內容,仍須倭= ;王的同意,所以倭王&#= 23565;於前述所謂中國的ä= 25;下秩序,應有相當理= 解,然後接受中國天= 3376;(宋順帝)的冊封Ӎ= 0;這封上表文,是今日&= #25152;見倭國給中國最早= 340;的文書。此外,在日= ;本金石文中,有名的&#= 22524;玉縣稻荷山古墳出ß= 03;鐵劍銘文曰:「辛亥= 年七月……吾左治天Ç= 79;」云云,辛亥年推定= 為四七一年;熊本縣= 7743;田船山古墳出土大࠳= 2;(推定為四七八年)&= #37528;文曰:「治天下…̷= 0;大王」,</span><a style=3D'mso-footnote-id:ftn21' href=3D"#_ftn21" name=3D"_ftnref21" title= =3D""><span class=3DMsoFootnoteReference><span lang=3DEN-US><span style=3D'mso-special-= character: footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span class=3DMsoFootnoteReference><span lang=3DEN-US style=3D'font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-fa= reast-font-family: PMingLiU;mso-font-kerning:1.0pt;mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-languag= e: ZH-TW;mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[21]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></= span></a><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-h= ansi-font-family: "Times New Roman"'>即說明此時的倭= 國王(推定為雄略天= 0343;)已在構築自己的ӎ= 0;天下」,</span><a style=3D'mso-footnote-id:ftn22' href=3D"#_ftn22" name=3D"_ftnref22" title= =3D""><span class=3DMsoFootnoteReference><span lang=3DEN-US><span style=3D'mso-special-= character: footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span class=3DMsoFootnoteReference><span lang=3DEN-US style=3D'font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-fa= reast-font-family: PMingLiU;mso-font-kerning:1.0pt;mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-languag= e: ZH-TW;mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[22]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></= span></a><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-h= ansi-font-family: "Times New Roman"'>其用以「治天下= 」的理論,當不出中= 2283;古典的規定。到八ߏ= 0;紀的律令制度時代,&= #20854;視大唐為「鄰國」A= 292;朝鮮三國為「外蕃」= ;(《令集解》〈公式&#= 20196;〉引「古記」、〈Ũ= 70;役令〉引「穴說」)= ;後來甚連大唐也被= 1015;為「諸藩」之一,೎= 0;日本則時自稱為「中&= #22283;」、「漢闕」。</span><a style=3D'mso-footnote-id:ftn23' href=3D"#_ftn23" name=3D"_ftnref23" title= =3D""><span class=3DMsoFootnoteReference><span lang=3DEN-US><span style=3D'mso-special-= character: footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span class=3DMsoFootnoteReference><span lang=3DEN-US style=3D'font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-fa= reast-font-family: PMingLiU;mso-font-kerning:1.0pt;mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-languag= e: ZH-TW;mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[23]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></= span></a></p> <p class=3DMsoNormal style=3D'text-indent:24.0pt;mso-char-indent-count:2.0'= ><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-h= ansi-font-family: "Times New Roman"'>試再看聖德太子= 攝政時所推動的推古= 6397;改革,推古十二年</span= ><span lang=3DEN-US>(604</span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-= family: "Times New Roman";mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>年</span><= span lang=3DEN-US>)</span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-fam= ily: "Times New Roman";mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>四月= 頒布有名的「憲法」= 1313;七條,其第一條說ᦂ= 6;「以和為貴」;第三&= #26781;說:「承詔必謹。= 531;則天之,臣則地之,= ;天覆地滅」;第四條&#= 35498;:「群卿百寮,以ķ= 50;為本」;第九條說:= 「信是義本」;第十= 0108;條說:「國司國造ᦁ= 2;勿斂百姓。國非二君&= #65292;民無二主以和為貴 = 301;等。(《日本書紀》= ;卷二十二)這些規定&#= 32972;後的理念,顯來自È= 13;國儒家典籍。此處的= 「憲法」,並非今日= 5152;理解的國家根本大ૢ= 1;,而是相當於中國晉&= #26397;以來所見的皇帝對!= 251;民訓示要項。「憲法= ;」十七條的內容,其&#= 23526;包含儒、法、佛等ö= 05;想。</span><a style=3D'mso-footnote-id:ftn24' href=3D"#_ftn24" name=3D"_ftnref24" title= =3D""><span class=3DMsoFootnoteReference><span lang=3DEN-US><span style=3D'mso-special-= character: footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span class=3DMsoFootnoteReference><span lang=3DEN-US style=3D'font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-fa= reast-font-family: PMingLiU;mso-font-kerning:1.0pt;mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-languag= e: ZH-TW;mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[24]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></= span></a><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-h= ansi-font-family: "Times New Roman"'>上述諸規定,即= 採用中國先秦以來的= 2825;下觀、君臣觀,禮ӌ= 9;信、義等是其重要德&= #30446;,若參照前一年</span><span lang=3DEN-US>(603</span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-= family: "Times New Roman";mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>年</span><= span lang=3DEN-US>)</span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-fam= ily: "Times New Roman";mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>所實= 施的冠位十二階辦法= 5292;是用德、仁、禮、߼= 9;、義、智(各分大小&= #20841;階)為其階序,則= 971;世紀以後在倭國所實= ;施的政治改革,說是&#= 20027;要採用儒教主義,È= 06;不為過。聖德太子所= 以採取這樣的改革理= 4565;,除時代的大環境਷= 9;由中國主導而外,當&= #33287;其教養有關。聖德= 826;子教養,《日本書紀= ;》卷二十二推古元年&#= 22235;月條云:「習內教Ą= 44;高麗僧慧慈,學外典= 於博士覺哿,並悉達= 0691;。」足見其年輕時ᦁ= 2;內外典兼修,所謂外&= #20856;,自是以儒家經典= 858;主,博士覺哿其人未= ;詳,但因自六世紀以&#= 20358;,倭國常自南朝梁ć= 97;聘請五經博士或簡稱= 博士到倭國來指導(= 3452;含顧間及教學事務ᦀ= 9;,此事可見於<span style=3D'color:black'>《日本書紀》Ń= 80;體、欽明兩紀。</span></span><a style=3D'mso-footnote-id:ftn25' href=3D"#_ftn25" name=3D"_ftnref25" title= =3D""><span class=3DMsoFootnoteReference><span lang=3DEN-US style=3D'color:black'><span style=3D'mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span class=3DMsoFootnoteReference><span lang=3DEN-US style=3D'font-size:12.0pt;f= ont-family: "Times New Roman";mso-fareast-font-family:PMingLiU;color:black;mso-font-ker= ning: 1.0pt;mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:ZH-TW;mso-bidi-language: AR-SA'>[25]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-h= ansi-font-family: "Times New Roman";color:black'>其後,有關= 754;教德目與王土王民觀= ;仍不斷出現於日本朝&#= 24311;施政上。其推動力ŵ= 27;,當來自以大學寮教= 育為主的儒教主義教= 2946;。</span><a style=3D'mso-footnote-id:ftn26' href=3D"#_ftn26" name=3D"_ftnref26" title= =3D""><span class=3DMsoFootnoteReference><span lang=3DEN-US style=3D'color:black'><span style=3D'mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span class=3DMsoFootnoteReference><span lang=3DEN-US style=3D'font-size:12.0pt;f= ont-family: "Times New Roman";mso-fareast-font-family:PMingLiU;color:black;mso-font-ker= ning: 1.0pt;mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:ZH-TW;mso-bidi-language: AR-SA'>[26]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span lang=3DEN= -US style=3D'color:black'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=3DMsoNormal style=3D'text-indent:24.0pt;mso-char-indent-count:2.0'= ><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-h= ansi-font-family: "Times New Roman";color:black'>朝鮮方面,= 377;名的高句麗好太王(= ;或曰廣開土)碑</span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-h= ansi-font-family: "Times New Roman"'>(立於</span><span lang=3DEN-US>414</s= pan><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-h= ansi-font-family: "Times New Roman"'>年)說:「百殘= 、新羅舊是屬民」;= 9968;九七九年在忠清北๮= 7;中原地方發現高句麗&= #12300;中原碑」,其建立= 180;代也大約在五、六世= ;紀之際,</span><a style=3D'mso-footnote-id:ftn27' href=3D"#_ftn27" name=3D"_ftnref27" title= =3D""><span class=3DMsoFootnoteReference><span lang=3DEN-US style=3D'font-size:11.0pt;m= so-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt'><span style=3D'mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootno= tes]><span class=3DMsoFootnoteReference><span lang=3DEN-US style=3D'font-size:11.0pt;m= so-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-fareast-font-family:PMingLiU; mso-font-kerning:1.0pt;mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:ZH-TW; mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[27]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span><= /a><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-h= ansi-font-family: "Times New Roman"'>碑文說:「高麗= 太王……新羅寐錦,Ç= 90;世為願,如兄如弟,= 上下相和。」此即說= 6126;高句麗自五世紀以߳= 8;,自築小天下,而以&= #26032;羅、百濟為臣屬。= 032;羅真興王在二十九年= ;</span><span lang=3DEN-US>(</span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-fam= ily: "Times New Roman";mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>戊子= ,</span><span lang=3DEN-US>568</span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-f= amily: "Times New Roman";mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>年</span><= span lang=3DEN-US>)</span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-fam= ily: "Times New Roman";mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>的咸= 州(黃草嶺)巡狩碑= 5292;</span><a style=3D'mso-footnote-id:ftn28' href=3D"#_ftn28" name=3D"_ftnref28" title= =3D""><span class=3DMsoFootnoteReference><span lang=3DEN-US style=3D'font-size:11.0pt;m= so-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt'><span style=3D'mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootno= tes]><span class=3DMsoFootnoteReference><span lang=3DEN-US style=3D'font-size:11.0pt;m= so-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-fareast-font-family:PMingLiU; mso-font-kerning:1.0pt;mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:ZH-TW; mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[28]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span><= /a><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-h= ansi-font-family: "Times New Roman"'>本是在東北部與= 高句麗界碑。其內容= 0805;分顯示儒家王道思঱= 9;,如曰:</span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'> = 300;帝王建號,莫不脩己= ;以安百姓」;「鄰國&#= 35475;信,和使交通」;{= 00;撫育新古黎庶,猶謂= 道化」云云,</span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-h= ansi-font-family: "Times New Roman"'>也是基於儒家的= 王道、德化政治思想= 5292;以提示真興王的功঒= 3;。</span><span lang=3DEN-US style=3D'font-size:11.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt'><o:p></o:= p></span></p> <p class=3DMsoNormal style=3D'text-indent:24.0pt;mso-char-indent-count:2.0'= ><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-h= ansi-font-family: "Times New Roman"'>總之,東亞古代= 的政治秩序原理,不= 2806;是儒教主義,目的ࢷ= 2;於建立王土王民的天&= #19979;,中國如此,朝鮮 = 289;日本亦然。在這個原= ;理運作之下,有時中&#= 22283;也被視為「諸藩」È= 43;一。這種理論的活用= ,對朝鮮、日本而言= 5292;起初有賴於當地漢ߟ= 4;的協助,後來隨著教&= #32946;事業的發展,尤其= 450;文教育,使儒教主義= ;思想得以在當地生根&#= 30332;展。即連國君幸學ŵ= 23;奠,在御前舉行講經= ,亦以儒教經典為主= 2290;例如新羅王在八、ߖ= 1;世紀的幸學;</span><a style=3D'mso-footnote-id:ftn29' href=3D"#_ftn29" name=3D"_ftnref29" title= =3D""><span class=3DMsoFootnoteReference><span lang=3DEN-US><span style=3D'mso-special-= character: footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span class=3DMsoFootnoteReference><span lang=3DEN-US style=3D'font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-fa= reast-font-family: PMingLiU;mso-font-kerning:1.0pt;mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-languag= e: ZH-TW;mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[29]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></= span></a><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-h= ansi-font-family: "Times New Roman"'>日本在大寶元年= </span><span lang=3DEN-US>(701</span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-= family: "Times New Roman";mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>年</span><= span lang=3DEN-US>)</span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-fam= ily: "Times New Roman";mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>首見= 在大學寮舉行釋奠禮= 5292;此時有無講經不明ᦁ= 2;但在八世紀中葉以後&= #20284;己開始講經論義。</sp= an><a style=3D'mso-footnote-id:ftn30' href=3D"#_ftn30" name=3D"_ftnref30" title= =3D""><span class=3DMsoFootnoteReference><span lang=3DEN-US><span style=3D'mso-special-= character: footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span class=3DMsoFootnoteReference><span lang=3DEN-US style=3D'font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-fa= reast-font-family: PMingLiU;mso-font-kerning:1.0pt;mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-languag= e: ZH-TW;mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[30]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></= span></a><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-h= ansi-font-family: "Times New Roman"'>這樣的禮儀,當= 然仿自中國。</span><a style=3D'mso-footnote-id:ftn31' href=3D"#_ftn31" name=3D"_ftnref31" title= =3D""><span class=3DMsoFootnoteReference><span lang=3DEN-US><span style=3D'mso-special-= character: footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span class=3DMsoFootnoteReference><span lang=3DEN-US style=3D'font-size:12.0pt;font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-fa= reast-font-family: PMingLiU;mso-font-kerning:1.0pt;mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-languag= e: ZH-TW;mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[31]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></= span></a><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-h= ansi-font-family: "Times New Roman"'>只是釋奠禮儀所= 顯示的儒教思想,形= 4335;意義大於實質意義Ӎ= 0;雖是如此,仍不能忽&= #35222;它的作用。這個作= 992;,簡單說在於宣示各= ;國主動推行儒教主義&#= 25945;育及以儒教(尤其Ï= 54;家經典)作為政治秩= 序的基本原理。推動= 6889;個理念的重鎮,即ࢷ= 2;大學(國學、國子監&= #12289;成均館等不同名稱A= 289;,尤其在學校祭祀的= ;場合,以尊孔、尊儒&#= 21517;義進行。此後各國ß= 12;學校或書院的祭禮,= 皆含此義。所以說政= 7835;秩序的建立與展開ᦁ= 2;除外在力量而外,其&= #20839;在的基石宜曰教育A= 292;尤其是儒教主義教育= ;。</span></p> <p class=3DMsoNormal align=3Dcenter style=3D'text-align:center'><span style=3D'font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-family:DFKai-SB; mso-ascii-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Ro= man"'>五、東亞文化與教ʼn= 46;圈的解體</span><span lang=3DEN-US style=3D'font-size:14.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;mso-fareas= t-font-family: DFKai-SB'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=3DMsoBodyTextIndent3 style=3D'text-indent:29.4pt'><span style=3D'f= ont-size: 12.0pt;font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-han= si-font-family: "Times New Roman"'>清朝光緒二十七= 年</span><span lang=3DEN-US style=3D'font-size:12.0pt'>(1901</span><span style=3D'font-siz= e:12.0pt; font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-hansi-font= -family: "Times New Roman"'>年</span><span lang=3DEN-US style=3D'font-size:12.= 0pt'>)</span><span style=3D'font-size:12.0pt;font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-family:"Times= New Roman"; mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>八月二日&#= 65292;下諭各省、府、直Ɓ= 84;州及各州、縣,分別= 將書院改設大、中、= 3567;學堂,理論上傳統ӎ= 0;廟學」制的解體,應&= #35373;定於此時。所謂傳 = 113;「廟學」制的解體,= ;指「廟」的要素退為&#= 27425;要地位,大半被廢Ɓ= 00;;「學」的園地,則= 改建成為近代學校,= 2780;儒教主義教育要素ߝ= 4;退為次要地位。易言&= #20043;,就「廟」與「學 = 301;的校園結合原理而言= ;,在近代學制中,一&#= 33324;即放棄「廟」的要ŀ= 32;,只存「學」的要素= ,成為較純粹的教學= 2290;地,這也是今日吾ߟ= 4;所見學校園地的普遍&= #29694;象。這種情形,首#= 211;於日本明治維新以後= ;。明治四年</span><span lang=3DEN-US style=3D'font-size:12.0pt'>(1871</span><span style=3D'font-siz= e:12.0pt; font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-hansi-font= -family: "Times New Roman"'>年</span><span lang=3DEN-US style=3D'font-size:12.= 0pt'>)</span><span style=3D'font-size:12.0pt;font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-family:"Times= New Roman"; mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>七月,廢&#= 34281;縣,接著設置文部İ= 65;。翌年</span><span lang=3DEN-US style=3D'font-size:12.0pt'>(1872</span><span style=3D'font-siz= e:12.0pt; font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-hansi-font= -family: "Times New Roman"'>年</span><span lang=3DEN-US style=3D'font-size:12.= 0pt'>)</span><span style=3D'font-size:12.0pt;font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-family:"Times= New Roman"; mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>八月,實&#= 26045;新學制,廢除舊制ê= 16;校。</span><a style=3D'mso-footnote-id:ftn32' href=3D"#_ftn32" name=3D"_ftnref32" title= =3D""><span class=3DMsoFootnoteReference><span lang=3DEN-US style=3D'font-size:12.0pt'>= <span style=3D'mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span class=3DMsoFootnoteReference><span lang=3DEN-US style=3D'font-size:12.0pt;f= ont-family: "Times New Roman";mso-fareast-font-family:PMingLiU;mso-font-kerning:1.0pt; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:ZH-TW;mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'= >[32]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span style=3D'font-size:12.0pt;font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-family:"Times= New Roman"; mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>朝鮮方面&#= 65292;一八九四年的甲午û= 36;爭,清朝被日本打敗= ,日本因而取得朝鮮= 0340;控制權。朝鮮在日ੑ= 2;的壓力下,實施所謂&= #30002;午改革</span><span lang=3DEN-US style=3D'font-size:12.0pt'>(1894</span><span style=3D'font-siz= e:12.0pt; font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-hansi-font= -family: "Times New Roman"'>年</span><span lang=3DEN-US style=3D'font-size:12.= 0pt'>)</span><span style=3D'font-size:12.0pt;font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-family:"Times= New Roman"; mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>,在官制&#= 26041;面設立學務衙門,ë= 26;施新學制,同時廢除= 科舉制。</span><a style=3D'mso-footnote-id:ftn33' href=3D"#_ftn33" name=3D"_ftnref33" title= =3D""><span class=3DMsoFootnoteReference><span lang=3DEN-US style=3D'font-size:12.0pt'>= <span style=3D'mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span class=3DMsoFootnoteReference><span lang=3DEN-US style=3D'font-size:12.0pt;f= ont-family: "Times New Roman";mso-fareast-font-family:PMingLiU;mso-font-kerning:1.0pt; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:ZH-TW;mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'= >[33]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span style=3D'font-size:12.0pt;font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-family:"Times= New Roman"; mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>越南方面&#= 65292;在中法戰爭後,於Ð= 09;緒十二年(</span><span lang=3DEN-US style=3D'font-size:12.0pt'>1885</span><span style=3D'font-size= :12.0pt; font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-hansi-font= -family: "Times New Roman"'>年)簽訂天津和= 約後,清朝承認法國= 0445;護越南,自此以後ᦁ= 2;越南在阮朝所推行的&= #12300;廟學」儒學教育亦&= 568;之解體。</span><a style=3D'mso-footnote-id:ftn34' href=3D"#_ftn34" name=3D"_ftnref34" title= =3D""><span class=3DMsoFootnoteReference><span lang=3DEN-US style=3D'font-size:12.0pt'>= <span style=3D'mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span class=3DMsoFootnoteReference><span lang=3DEN-US style=3D'font-size:12.0pt;f= ont-family: "Times New Roman";mso-fareast-font-family:PMingLiU;mso-font-kerning:1.0pt; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:ZH-TW;mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'= >[34]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span style=3D'font-size:12.0pt;font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-family:"Times= New Roman"; mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>據此而言&#= 65292;若以具體時間說明{= 00;東亞教育圈」的解體= 時程,可作如下:日= 6412;</span><span lang=3DEN-US style=3D'font-size:12.0pt'>(1872</span><span style=3D'font-siz= e:12.0pt; font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-hansi-font= -family: "Times New Roman"'>年</span><span lang=3DEN-US style=3D'font-size:12.= 0pt'>)</span><span style=3D'font-size:12.0pt;font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-family:"Times= New Roman"; mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>──越南</sp= an><span lang=3DEN-US style=3D'font-size:12.0pt'>(1885</span><span style=3D'font-siz= e:12.0pt; font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-hansi-font= -family: "Times New Roman"'>年</span><span lang=3DEN-US style=3D'font-size:12.= 0pt'>)</span><span style=3D'font-size:12.0pt;font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-family:"Times= New Roman"; mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>──朝鮮</sp= an><span lang=3DEN-US style=3D'font-size:12.0pt'>(1894</span><span style=3D'font-siz= e:12.0pt; font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-hansi-font= -family: "Times New Roman"'>年</span><span lang=3DEN-US style=3D'font-size:12.= 0pt'>)</span><span style=3D'font-size:12.0pt;font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-family:"Times= New Roman"; mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>──清朝</sp= an><span lang=3DEN-US style=3D'font-size:12.0pt'>(1901</span><span style=3D'font-siz= e:12.0pt; font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-hansi-font= -family: "Times New Roman"'>年</span><span lang=3DEN-US style=3D'font-size:12.= 0pt'>)</span><span style=3D'font-size:12.0pt;font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-family:"Times= New Roman"; mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>。此即「&#= 26481;亞教育圈」在三十ñ= 80;間,完全解體。若再= 由十九世紀中葉以後= 5292;西方列強以火砲大ഀ= 9;摧毀中國自明清時期&= #25152;建立的天下秩序,= 063;十九世紀中葉以後的= ;五十年,實是東亞政&#= 27835;秩序與文化圈紛紛Š= 99;體的一段歷程,誠如= 李鴻章所說的「數千= 4180;來未有之變局」。</span= ><span lang=3DEN-US style=3D'font-size:12.0pt'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=3Da2><span style=3D'font-family:DFKai-SB;mso-ascii-font-family:PMi= ngLiU; mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>六、歷史&#= 30340;反思──今後的展望= ;</span></p> <p class=3DMsoBodyTextIndent3 style=3D'text-indent:29.4pt'><span style=3D'f= ont-size: 12.0pt;font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-han= si-font-family: "Times New Roman"'>二十世紀以後迄= 今,則為新秩序、新= 0729;值體系建立時期;ߖ= 3;是傳統與現代社會激&= #30442;與重編時期。一百= 810;年來的模索,已經付= ;出不少痛苦代價,是&#= 21542;走出自己的新境界Ë= 58;,值得再作反省。今= 日所見的中華文化,= 4050;經喪失其優勢,不߭= 4;中國文化圈解體,即&= #36899;作為其基礎的教育= 280;也為之瓦解;而共同= ;形制的「廟學」,成&#= 28858;史跡供人憑弔而已z= 90;此外,法制要素的「= 中華法系」,也棄之= 2914;敝履。</span><span style=3D'font-size:12.0pt;font-family:PMingLiU;mso-hansi-font-family:"Times= New Roman"'>五項東亞共通的ਧ= 1;化要素,如今只勉強&= #36996;可見到漢字、佛教= 561;殘影而已。過去一、= ;二千年的歷史,在政&#= 27835;秩序方面,由於中Þ= 83;王朝盛衰起伏不已,= 政治秩序因而治亂不= 9968;,但是到明、清時੏= 9;,終得再重建。文化&= #33287;教育圈方面,始終!= 021;夠自我運行。但是到= ;十九世紀中葉以後,&#= 36935;到西方強勢文明,Ç= 81;論政治或文化,均不= 堪一擊,確實是千年= 0358;未有之變局。為何ࣳ= 4;此?這是研究近代現&= #20195;史者多年來努力在= 563;找的答案。筆者無意= ;也無能力對此問題作&#= 20840;面性解答,以下只ì= 01;教育方面的變化,試= 圖提出思考方案。一= 2289;十九世紀中葉,東ਬ= 1;文明遇西方文明而形&= #24433;見拙。十七、八世 = 000;以來,西方文明因為= ;工業革命而突飛猛進&#= 65292;相對的東方諸國因Ġ= 58;政治、社會的閉瑣而= 呈現故步自封狀態,= 6840;十九世紀中葉東西ਧ= 1;明大規模接觸時,東&= #26041;文明變為弱勢。二 = 289;國民自信心的崩潰,= ;進而擯棄傳統文化。&#= 35199;方列強以船堅砲利ó= 75;行叩關之後,對東方= 各國民心衝擊甚鉅,= 2240;而激起模仿西方的૱= 0;潮,對傳統文明產生&= #21329;視,甚至排斥。三 = 289;傳統教育缺乏實用,= ;不重科學,又忽視教&#= 32946;機會平等、個性發ì= 37;等,近代西方教育理= 論以及課程設計,可= 4396;補這些缺失。上述෥= 6;問題,在傳統教育理&= #35542;中,雖也有某種程= 230;的提倡,但是在當時= ;的君主政體及其官僚&#= 39636;制運作下,確實有Ð= 54;盲點,近代教育事業= 在西方影響下,的確= 9554;得過去所沒有的成स= 1;,這也是近代教育事&= #26989;得以自傲的地方。= 235;、將尊孔讀經視為與= ;「封建」時代的產物&#= 65292;孔教為宗教,不容Ą= 44;共和。以上四點,關= 於第一、二、三點,= 3416;界討論甚多,於此এ= 8;略;此處擬就第四點&= #65292;略加說明。<span lang=3DEN-US><o:p></o:p></span></span></p> <p class=3DMsoBodyTextIndent3 style=3D'text-indent:29.4pt'><span style=3D'f= ont-size: 12.0pt;font-family:PMingLiU;mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>৓= 2;謂尊孔讀經是「封建&= #12301;時代的產物,孔教= 858;宗教不容於共和,是= ;清末民初以來的輿論&#= 65292;乃至政策。例如光ł= 10;二十九年<span lang=3DEN-US>(1904</span>年<span lang=3DEN-US>)</span>十一= ;月二十六日張百熙、&#= 27054;慶、張之洞的奏定{= 00;學務綱要」說:「中= 小學堂宜注重讀經以= 3384;聖教。外國學堂有न= 7;教一門,中國之經書&= #65292;即是中國之宗教。 = 301;<a style=3D'mso-footnote-id:ftn35' href=3D"#_ftn35" name=3D"_ftnref35" title= =3D""><span class=3DMsoFootnoteReference><span lang=3DEN-US><span style=3D'mso-special-= character: footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span class=3DMsoFootnoteReference><span lang=3DEN-US style=3D'font-size:12.0pt;font-family:PMingLiU;mso-hansi-font-= family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-font-kerning:1= .0pt; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:ZH-TW;mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'= >[35]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a>這是ę= 65;末在政策上以孔教為= 宗教的宣示。光緒三= 1313;二年<span lang=3DEN-US>(1906</span>年<span lang=3DEN-US>)</span>三月= ;一日所頒行的五項教&#= 32946;宗旨,尊孔即其中È= 43;一。但是民國成立,= 蔡元培出任第一任教= 2946;總長,乃提出「</span><span style=3D'font-size:12.0pt;font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-family:"Times= New Roman"; mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>忠君與共&#= 21644;政體不合,尊孔與Ì= 49;教自由相違</span><span style=3D'font-size:12.0pt;font-family:PMingLiU;mso-hansi-font-family:"Times= New Roman"'>」。民國元年</span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-h= ansi-font-family: "Times New Roman"'>二月發表的〈對= 于新教育之意見〉,= 5552;出五點意見:一曰็= 7;國民教育、二曰實利&= #20027;義教育、三曰公民$= 947;德教育、四曰世界觀= ;教育、五曰美感教育&#= 12290;</span><a style=3D'mso-footnote-id:ftn36' href=3D"#_ftn36" name=3D"_ftnref36" title= =3D""><span class=3DMsoFootnoteReference><span lang=3DEN-US><span style=3D'mso-special-= character: footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span class=3DMsoFootnoteReference><span lang=3DEN-US style=3D'font-size:11.0pt;mso-bidi-font-size:12.0pt;font-famil= y:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-font-family:PMingLiU;mso-font-kerning:1.0pt;mso-ansi-language:E= N-US; mso-fareast-language:ZH-TW;mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'>[36]</span></span><![en= dif]></span></span></span></a><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-h= ansi-font-family: "Times New Roman"'>這些主張,對民= 國以來的教育發展是= 9978;大的影響。但後來੍= 7;袁世凱復辟,又行尊&= #23380;,</span><span style=3D'font-size:12.0pt;font-family:PMingLiU;mso-hansi-font-family:"Times= New Roman"'>新文化運動時期ᦁ= 2;又激起反孔、反傳統&= #24605;潮。直至最近<span lang=3DEN-US>(1966</span>年<span lang=3DEN-US>)</span>,大= ;陸又有批孔運動,但&#= 26159;到<span lang=3DEN-US>1980</span>年代,遭到破= 2750;的傳統遺跡又陸續ಊ= 2;予修復。事實上,國&= #27665;政府時代,已經將= 380;廟管理劃歸內政部掌= ;管,在行政制度上是&#= 23559;孔廟視為一般廟宇ŗ= 89;理。這樣的制度,一= 直行用至今。<span lang=3DEN-US><o:p></o:p></span></span></p> <p class=3DMsoBodyTextIndent3 style=3D'text-indent:29.4pt'><span style=3D'f= ont-size: 12.0pt;font-family:PMingLiU;mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>ߣ= 7;上是簡述清末以來到&= #29694;在對於尊孔與孔廟= 340;處理。這一世紀以來= ;,隨著尊孔與孔廟的&#= 35722;遷,至少有以下三Ì= 91;問題值得思考:一、= 孔教是否即是宗教?= 0108;、孔廟是否屬於一ഄ= 4;廟宇之一?三、尊孔&= #33287;孔廟的存在是否只= 159;「封建」君主的幫凶= ;?關於問題一,清末&#= 25919;府在政策上雖已將é= 80;教定位為宗教,但贊= 否聲浪到民國以後仍= 8982;存在。最近的看法ᦁ= 2;可說孔教雖有近於宗&= #25945;的祭禮,但只能說= 855;有宗教性,終非為宗= ;教。<a style=3D'mso-footnote-id:ftn37' href=3D"#_ftn37" name=3D"_ftnref37" title= =3D""><span class=3DMsoFootnoteReference><span lang=3DEN-US><span style=3D'mso-special-= character: footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span class=3DMsoFootnoteReference><span lang=3DEN-US style=3D'font-size:12.0pt;font-family:PMingLiU;mso-hansi-font-= family: "Times New Roman";mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-font-kerning:1= .0pt; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:ZH-TW;mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'= >[37]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span lang=3DEN-US> </span>關於第二問題ᦁ= 2;孔廟在傳統並非界定&= #28858;一般廟宇,此在唐= 435;代以後地方誌、類書= ;、政書等記載體例中&#= 30340;廟宇欄找不到孔廟ʌ= 92;而必須在學校欄才能= 找到,可作證明。(= 7491;史無學校志,而散ශ= 1;於選舉志、百官志、&= #31150;志等)足見傳統時= 195;將孔廟視為學校一部= ;分,極為明顯。因此&#= 65292;就傳統的觀點而言ʌ= 92;現在政府對於孔廟管= 理,應該歸由教育部= 5484;管,而非現行的內ਟ= 9;部,各縣市政府亦然&= #12290;如將孔廟定位為一!= 324;廟宇或古蹟,則另當= ;別論。問題三,尊孔&#= 65288;孔廟)與「封建」×= 31;主的關係,從政治的= 角度而言,的確有被= 1531;主利用一面,但也ߎ= 1;能否定孔子對歷代的&= #25945;育、文化方面所產= 983;的貢獻。這也是拙稿= ;所要討論的地方。<span lang=3DEN-US><o:p></o:p></span></span></p> <p class=3Da4><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-family:"Ti= mes New Roman"; mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>自從漢武&#= 24093;獨尊儒術以後,儒ă= 45;(或謂孔教)從此水= 漲船高。但是儒教要= 6948;到國教化,恐怕還ව= 1;等到西漢末東漢初以&= #24460;了。漢以後帝王利= 992;儒教統治中國,這個= ;事實,一般都可以接&#= 21463;。問題是自戰國以Ë= 58;,新國君權位不斷高= 漲,秦漢統一王權以= 4460;更是如此。戰國到ర= 6;朝,主要是以法家思&= #24819;治國,但法家理論= 480;予君權後,缺乏制君= ;篇章,所以一旦君主&#= 28651;權,乃成為暴君。Ĝ= 50;以後,鑑於秦朝暴政= ,遂有儒道制君,漢= 0754;競言天人合一,以࣪= 5;制君,當基於此故。&= #20294;天人災異說到西漢= 411;期顯然漸失功效,此= ;後雖有讖緯說,反而&#= 21161;長君權的高漲。如Ë= 09;制君,以求政治合理= 化,似成為東漢以後= 5201;思考的課題。對於๨= 9;樣的課題,實際上,&= #23569;見於當時儒生的言#= 542;,但是這個課題是存= ;在的,此由孔子在歷&#= 21490;上的地位不斷的提Õ= 19;,以及儒門在教育方= 面獨樹一幟,終於出= 9694;「廟學」教育制度ᦁ= 2;可以見知。</span></p> <p class=3Da4><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-family:"Ti= mes New Roman"; mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>由於「廟&#= 23416;」教育制度也是在×= 31;主許可之後成立的,= 說是被君主利用,自= 0134;事實;但是「廟學ӎ= 1;存在的神聖性(含下&= #39340;碑的設置),就不= 159;完全以君主專制主義= ;所能解釋的。例如所&#= 35586;孔子為「百世帝王È= 43;師」,韓愈在〈處州= 孔子廟碑〉所說:「= 3258;天子至郡邑守長,๩= 0;得祀於天下者,唯社&= #31287;與孔子為然。……೽= 8;天子而下,北面跪祭&= #65292;進退誠敬,禮如親= 351;子者。」(《韓昌黎= ;文集校注》卷</span><span lang=3DEN-US> 7</span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-fa= mily: "Times New Roman";mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>)乃= 至宋儒以下所強調道= 2113;高於政統,清代士࣪= 3;夫家都供奉「天地君&= #35242;師」牌位等,皆不!= 021;當作「封建」君主幫= ;凶一概論之。易言之&#= 65292;漢以來專制君主是É= 97;「外儒內法」施政,= 致使君權越來越高漲= 2290;此時之儒生,鑑於ߣ= 7;天制君失效後,只好&= #20551;藉孔子在儒門地位= 197;制君,正面上即強調= ;透過教育以制君,此&#= 26159;西漢賈誼強調皇太é= 76;教育,乃至帝王學教= 育為治國不可缺少的= 6947;理所在。所以漢以঎= 0;出現的孔子,已經不&= #26159;先秦的孔子,而是= 763;大夫階層的護身符。= ;在歷代君主嚴刑峻罰&#= 30340;淫威下,士大夫如ĉ= 24;不是躲在孔子護傘下= ,其歷史悲運不知還= 5201;如何上演。</span></p> <p class=3Da4><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-family:"Ti= mes New Roman"; mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>因此,儒&#= 25945;(尤其是「廟學」ʌ= 89;的存在,除為君權提= 供正統性而外,相對= 0340;透過教育,灌輸聖஍= 9;政治理論,期使政治&= #21512;理化而產生制君效= 524;,雖然這種效果常常= ;不彰顯。此外,儒教&#= 30340;「廟學」所在地,Ō= 58;下馬碑以後的園地,= 已自成天國,書院建= 1689;雖無下馬碑,但亦೽= 8;成園地。這些教育埸&= #25152;,常由大儒住持, = 780;成為地方士大夫的文= ;化中心地。所謂教化&#= 12289;化民成俗,即由此Ň= 80;發。</span></p> <p class=3DMsoBodyTextIndent3 style=3D'text-indent:29.4pt'><span style=3D'f= ont-size: 12.0pt;font-family:PMingLiU;mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>๧= 9;過以上的理解,處在&= #24319;一世紀的今天,應#= 442;如何來看待東亞傳統= ;的教育事業,尤其</span><sp= an style=3D'font-size:12.0pt;font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-family:"Times= New Roman"; mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>「廟學」&#= 30340;教育體制?筆者以Ġ= 58;下列幾項值得考慮:= 一、孔廟必須與文化= 0013;心地相結合。由於ढ= 0;廟本是傳統學校一部&= #20998;,屬於教育活動園= 320;,所以現存孔廟(山= ;東曲阜孔廟除外),&#= 24517;須與現代社會的文Ô= 70;中心地諸活動相結合= ,從事地方上的文化= 7963;動,而不應只是作୅= 8;古蹟觀賞而已。地方&= #30340;所謂文化活動,不!= 021;只限於藝文、民俗、= ;歌舞而已。二、孔廟&#= 31150;制必須全面更新。É= 70;日東亞各國行用的孔= 廟禮制,沿襲自明朝= 2025;靖九年</span><span lang=3DEN-US style=3D'font-size:12.0pt'>(1530</span><span style=3D'font-siz= e:12.0pt; font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-hansi-font= -family: "Times New Roman"'>年</span><span lang=3DEN-US style=3D'font-size:12.= 0pt'>)</span><span style=3D'font-size:12.0pt;font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-family:"Times= New Roman"; mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>的革新。&#= 27492;次主要是確立廟位ī= 92;木主,捨棄塑像制;= 儒門序次,確立孔子= 8858;聖師,其次為先賢ᦀ= 8;含四配),再次為先&= #20754;的尊稱。這是在儒"= 899;獨尊下的禮制,今日= ;在民主體制下,只要&#= 23565;文化有貢獻的先人Ň= 73;,應該都可進入文廟= ,文廟主神仍可定位= 8858;孔子,但其名稱,߬= 4;宜改稱為文廟或聖廟&= #65292;無需再襲稱孔廟。= 977;、今日校園依據地方= ;的特色,不妨添置文&#= 21270;館或先賢館。文化ƈ= 08;或先賢館可陳列當地= 先賢遺物事蹟等,除= 1487;保存史料以外,並ࡤ= 7;供當地學子瞻仰學習&= #65292;尤其是中小學。如= 492;可寓有傳統「廟學」= ;之遺意,同時也</span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-h= ansi-font-family: "Times New Roman"'>不再使傳統社會= 與現代社會形成對立= 2290;</span><span lang=3DEN-US style=3D'font-size:12.0pt;font-family:PMingLiU;mso-hansi-font-= family: "Times New Roman"'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=3DMsoBodyTextIndent3 style=3D'text-indent:29.4pt'><span style=3D'f= ont-size: 12.0pt;font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-han= si-font-family: "Times New Roman"'>緬懷過去,策勵= 未來,正是我們研究= 7511;史的目的所在。中ࢴ= 3;過去所建立起來的教&= #32946;傳統,論其施行的= 320;區,非只中國本土,= ;而是包括東亞的韓國&#= 12289;日本、越南諸國;ţ= 42;其推行時間,則在一= 、二千年以上。一個= 1046;度能實行到這種成ਠ= 8;,在其他歷史世界是&= #38627;予比擬的。推論其= 925;,主要在於這一段期= ;間的中華文化,扮演&#= 24375;勢文化或謂優勢文Ô= 70;的角色。但十九世紀= 中葉以後,西方強勢= 5991;化大舉東來,衝擊ߔ= 3;下,中華文化轉為弱&= #21218;,東亞文化、教育= 280;隨之解體。由此觀點= ;而言,今日中國所面&#= 33256;的危機,不只是民Ą= 63;問題,更重要的是文= 化的衰退問題,值得= 1566;人三思。</span><span lang=3DEN-US style=3D'font-size:12.0pt'><o:p></o:p></span></p> <p class=3DMsoBodyTextIndent3 style=3D'text-indent:29.4pt'><span lang=3DEN-= US style=3D'font-size:12.0pt;font-family:PMingLiU;mso-hansi-font-family:"Times= New Roman"'><o:p> </o:p></span></p> </div> <div style=3D'mso-element:footnote-list'><![if !supportFootnotes]><br clear= =3Dall> <hr align=3Dleft size=3D1 width=3D"33%"> <![endif]> <div style=3D'mso-element:footnote' id=3Dftn1> <p class=3DMsoFootnoteText><a style=3D'mso-footnote-id:ftn1' href=3D"#_ftnr= ef1" name=3D"_ftn1" title=3D""><span class=3DMsoFootnoteReference><span lang=3DE= N-US><span style=3D'mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span class=3DMsoFootnoteReference><span lang=3DEN-US style=3D'font-size:10.0pt;f= ont-family: "Times New Roman";mso-fareast-font-family:PMingLiU;mso-font-kerning:1.0pt; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:ZH-TW;mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'= >[1]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-h= ansi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-font-kerning:0pt'>簡單的介= 2057;,參看黃文山:《ਧ= 1;化學體系》,頁</span><span lang=3DEN-US style=3D'mso-font-kerning:0pt'>1011</span><span style=3D'font-= family: PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-hansi-font-family:"Tim= es New Roman"; mso-font-kerning:0pt'>注</span><span lang=3DEN-US style=3D'mso-font-k= erning: 0pt'>19</span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-family:"Ti= mes New Roman"; mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-font-kerning:0pt'>,Ö= 88;北,中華書局,</span><span lang=3DEN-US style=3D'mso-font-kerning:0pt'>1971</span><span style=3D'font-= family: PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-hansi-font-family:"Tim= es New Roman"; mso-font-kerning:0pt'>;有系統的整ĩ= 02;,參看菊池英夫:〈= 「東</span><span style=3D'font-family:\83EF\5EB7\6977\66F8\9AD4W5;mso-font-kerning:0pt'>?= 307;</span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-h= ansi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-font-kerning:0pt'>文化圈</span><span style=3D'font-family:\83EF\5EB7\6977\66F8\9AD4W5;mso-font-kerning:0pt'>?= 268;</span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-h= ansi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-font-kerning:0pt'>成立」紹= 0171;</span><span style=3D'font-family:\83EF\5EB7\4EFF\5B8B\9AD4W4;mso-font-kerning:0pt'>?= 262;</span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-h= ansi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-font-kerning:0pt'>整理〉,= 5910;入唐代史研究會:Ӎ= 8;東</span><span style=3D'font-family:\83EF\5EB7\6977\66F8\9AD4W5;mso-font-kerning:0pt'>?= 307;</span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-h= ansi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-font-kerning:0pt'>文化圈</span><span style=3D'font-family:\83EF\5EB7\6977\66F8\9AD4W5;mso-font-kerning:0pt'>?= 268;</span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-h= ansi-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-font-kerning:0pt'>成立》第= 9968;部,東京,刀水書৓= 1;,</span><span lang=3DEN-US style=3D'mso-font-kerning:0pt'>1978</span><span style=3D'font-= family: PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-hansi-font-family:"Tim= es New Roman"; mso-font-kerning:0pt'>。</span></p> </div> <div style=3D'mso-element:footnote' id=3Dftn2> <p class=3DMsoFootnoteText><a style=3D'mso-footnote-id:ftn2' href=3D"#_ftnr= ef2" name=3D"_ftn2" title=3D""><span class=3DMsoFootnoteReference><span lang=3DE= N-US><span style=3D'mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span class=3DMsoFootnoteReference><span lang=3DEN-US style=3D'font-size:10.0pt;f= ont-family: "Times New Roman";mso-fareast-font-family:PMingLiU;mso-font-kerning:1.0pt; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:ZH-TW;mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'= >[2]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span lang=3DEN-US> </span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-fam= ily: "Times New Roman";mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-font-kerning: 0pt'>參看湯恩比著‧陳曉= ;林譯:《歷史研究》&#= 65292;第九章〈文明的曠Š= 64;〉,台北,桂冠圖書= 公司,民國</span><span lang=3DEN-US style=3D'mso-font-kerning:0pt'>69</span><span style=3D'font-fa= mily:PMingLiU; mso-ascii-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Ro= man"; mso-font-kerning:0pt'>年增修訂三版z= 90;</span></p> </div> <div style=3D'mso-element:footnote' id=3Dftn3> <p class=3DMsoFootnoteText><a style=3D'mso-footnote-id:ftn3' href=3D"#_ftnr= ef3" name=3D"_ftn3" title=3D""><span class=3DMsoFootnoteReference><span lang=3DE= N-US><span style=3D'mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span class=3DMsoFootnoteReference><span lang=3DEN-US style=3D'font-size:10.0pt;f= ont-family: "Times New Roman";mso-fareast-font-family:PMingLiU;mso-font-kerning:1.0pt; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:ZH-TW;mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'= >[3]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span lang=3DEN-US> </span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-fam= ily: "Times New Roman";mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>朱雲= 影:《中國文化對日= 8867;越的影響》,〈自ॴ= 7;〉,台北,黎明文化&= #20107;業公司,</span><span lang=3DEN-US>1981</span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-= family: "Times New Roman";mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>。</span><= /p> </div> <div style=3D'mso-element:footnote' id=3Dftn4> <p class=3DMsoFootnoteText><a style=3D'mso-footnote-id:ftn4' href=3D"#_ftnr= ef4" name=3D"_ftn4" title=3D""><span class=3DMsoFootnoteReference><span lang=3DE= N-US><span style=3D'mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span class=3DMsoFootnoteReference><span lang=3DEN-US style=3D'font-size:10.0pt;f= ont-family: "Times New Roman";mso-fareast-font-family:PMingLiU;mso-font-kerning:1.0pt; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:ZH-TW;mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'= >[4]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span lang=3DEN-US> </span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-fam= ily: "Times New Roman";mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>引自= 周一良:《中日文化= 8364;係史論》,南昌,૖= 3;西人民出版社,</span><span lang=3DEN-US>1990</span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-= family: "Times New Roman";mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>年。= </span></p> </div> <div style=3D'mso-element:footnote' id=3Dftn5> <p class=3DMsoFootnoteText><a style=3D'mso-footnote-id:ftn5' href=3D"#_ftnr= ef5" name=3D"_ftn5" title=3D""><span class=3DMsoFootnoteReference><span lang=3DE= N-US><span style=3D'mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span class=3DMsoFootnoteReference><span lang=3DEN-US style=3D'font-size:10.0pt;f= ont-family: "Times New Roman";mso-fareast-font-family:PMingLiU;mso-font-kerning:1.0pt; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:ZH-TW;mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'= >[5]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span lang=3DEN-US> </span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-fam= ily: "Times New Roman";mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>田村= 實造:《中國征服王= 6397;</span><span style=3D'font-family:\83EF\5EB7\4EFF\5B8B\9AD4W4;mso-ascii-font-family:"Tim= es New Roman"'></span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-h= ansi-font-family: "Times New Roman"'>研究</span><span lang=3DEN-US> (</span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-h= ansi-font-family: "Times New Roman"'>上</span><span lang=3DEN-US>) </span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-h= ansi-font-family: "Times New Roman"'>》,京都,京都= 大學東洋史研究會,</s= pan><span lang=3DEN-US>1967</span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-= family: "Times New Roman";mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>年二= 版。</span></p> </div> <div style=3D'mso-element:footnote' id=3Dftn6> <p class=3DMsoFootnoteText><a style=3D'mso-footnote-id:ftn6' href=3D"#_ftnr= ef6" name=3D"_ftn6" title=3D""><span class=3DMsoFootnoteReference><span lang=3DE= N-US><span style=3D'mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span class=3DMsoFootnoteReference><span lang=3DEN-US style=3D'font-size:10.0pt;f= ont-family: "Times New Roman";mso-fareast-font-family:PMingLiU;mso-font-kerning:1.0pt; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:ZH-TW;mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'= >[6]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-f= ont-kerning: 0pt'>參看前引朱雲影:Ӎ= 8;中國文化對日韓越的&= #24433;響》各編。</span></p> </div> <div style=3D'mso-element:footnote' id=3Dftn7> <p class=3DMsoFootnoteText><a style=3D'mso-footnote-id:ftn7' href=3D"#_ftnr= ef7" name=3D"_ftn7" title=3D""><span class=3DMsoFootnoteReference><span lang=3DE= N-US><span style=3D'mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span class=3DMsoFootnoteReference><span lang=3DEN-US style=3D'font-size:10.0pt;f= ont-family: "Times New Roman";mso-fareast-font-family:PMingLiU;mso-font-kerning:1.0pt; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:ZH-TW;mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'= >[7]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-f= ont-kerning: 0pt'>參看西</span><span style=3D'font-family:"MS PMincho"; mso-ascii-font-family:PMingLiU;mso-font-kerning:0pt'>嶋</span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-f= ont-kerning: 0pt'>定生:〈東</span><span style=3D'font-fam= ily: \83EF\5EB7\6977\66F8\9AD4W5;mso-font-kerning:0pt'><= /span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-f= ont-kerning: 0pt'>世界</span><span style=3D'font-family:\83EF\5EB7\6977\66F8= \9AD4W5; mso-font-kerning:0pt'></span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU; mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-font-kerning:0pt'>形û= 04;:總說〉(收入《岩= 波講座:世界歷史》</s= pan><span lang=3DEN-US style=3D'mso-font-kerning:0pt'>4</span><span style=3D'font-fam= ily:PMingLiU; mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-font-kerning:0pt'>,Ĉ= 81;京,岩波書店,</span><span lang=3DEN-US style=3D'mso-font-kerning:0pt'>1970</span><span style=3D'font-= family: PMingLiU;mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-font-kerning:0pt'>A= 289;、西</span><span style=3D'font-family:"MS PMincho";mso-ascii-font-family:PMingLiU;mso-font-k= erning: 0pt'>嶋</span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-hansi-font-fami= ly: "Times New Roman";mso-font-kerning:0pt'>定生:〈= 6481;</span><span style=3D'font-family:\83EF\5EB7\6977\66F8\9AD4W5;mso-font-kerning:0pt'>?= 307;</span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-f= ont-kerning: 0pt'>世界</span><span style=3D'font-family:\83EF\5EB7\6977\66F8= \9AD4W5; mso-font-kerning:0pt'></span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU; mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-font-kerning:0pt'>日Ĉ= 12;史</span><span lang=3DEN-US style=3D'mso-font-kerning:0pt'>(1)</span><span style=3D'font-f= amily: PMingLiU;mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-font-kerning:0pt'>A= 374;</span><span lang=3DEN-US style=3D'mso-font-kerning:0pt'>(12)</span><span style=3D'font-= family: PMingLiU;mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-font-kerning:0pt'> = 297;(《歷史公論》</span><span lang=3DEN-US style=3D'mso-font-kerning:0pt'>1-1</span><span style=3D'font-f= amily: PMingLiU;mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-font-kerning:0pt'>A= 374;</span><span lang=3DEN-US style=3D'mso-font-kerning:0pt'>2-11</span><span style=3D'font-= family: PMingLiU;mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-font-kerning:0pt'>A= 292;</span><span lang=3DEN-US style=3D'mso-font-kerning:0pt'>1975-12</span><span style=3D'fo= nt-family: PMingLiU;mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-font-kerning:0pt'>A= 374;</span><span lang=3DEN-US style=3D'mso-font-kerning:0pt'>1976-11</span><span style=3D'fo= nt-family: PMingLiU;mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-font-kerning:0pt'>A= 289;。以上兩文,均收入= ;西</span><span style=3D'font-family:"MS PMincho";mso-ascii-font-family:PMingLiU;mso-font-k= erning: 0pt'>嶋定生</span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU; mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-font-kerning:0pt'>:z= 98;中國古代國家</span><span style=3D'font-family:\83EF\5EB7\4EFF\5B8B\9AD4W4;mso-font-kerning:0pt'>?= 262;</span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-f= ont-kerning: 0pt'>東</span><span style=3D'font-family:\83EF\5EB7\4EFF\5B8B\9AD4W4; mso-font-kerning:0pt'></span><span style=3D'font-fa= mily: PMingLiU;mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-font-kerning:0pt'>= 990;界》(東京大學出版= ;會,</span><span lang=3DEN-US style=3D'mso-font-kerning:0pt'>1983</span><span style=3D'font-= family: PMingLiU;mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-font-kerning:0pt'>A= 289;,讀者可參照。汪向= ;榮:〈中國文化圈〉&#= 65288;收入汪向榮:《古É= 95;的中國與日本》,北= 京,三聯書店,</span><span lang=3DEN-US style=3D'mso-font-kerning:0pt'>1989</span><span style=3D'font-= family: PMingLiU;mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-font-kerning:0pt'>A= 289;,頁</span><span lang=3DEN-US style=3D'mso-font-kerning:0pt'>1</span><span style=3D'font-fam= ily:PMingLiU; mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-font-kerning:0pt'>~</spa= n><span lang=3DEN-US style=3D'mso-font-kerning:0pt'>25 </span><span style=3D'font-f= amily: PMingLiU;mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-font-kerning:0pt'> = 290;此外,與中國文化圈= ;相關的「東亞世界」&#= 27010;念,也是西</span><span style=3D'font-family:"MS PMincho";mso-ascii-font-family:PMingLiU;mso-font-k= erning: 0pt'>嶋</span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-hansi-font-fami= ly: "Times New Roman";mso-font-kerning:0pt'>先生極力= 0027;張的學說,其重要෢= 2;述,除上舉著作而外&= #65292;最近的作品,有《= 085;本歷史</span><span style=3D'font-family:\83EF\5EB7\4EFF\5B8B\9AD4W4;mso-font-kerning:0pt'>?= 268;</span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-f= ont-kerning: 0pt'>國際環境》(東京࣪= 3;學出版會,</span><span lang=3DEN-US style=3D'mso-font-kerning:0pt'>1985</span><span style=3D'font-= family: PMingLiU;mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-font-kerning:0pt'>= 180;)、《邪馬台國</span><span style=3D'font-family:\83EF\5EB7\4EFF\5B8B\9AD4W4;mso-font-kerning:0pt'>?= 262;</span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-f= ont-kerning: 0pt'>倭國──古代日本</span><= span style=3D'font-family:\83EF\5EB7\4EFF\5B8B\9AD4W4;mso-font-kerning:0pt'>?= 262;</span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-f= ont-kerning: 0pt'>東</span><span style=3D'font-family:\83EF\5EB7\4EFF\5B8B\9AD4W4; mso-font-kerning:0pt'></span><span style=3D'font-fa= mily: PMingLiU;mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-font-kerning:0pt'> = 299;(東京,吉川弘文館= ;,</span><span lang=3DEN-US style=3D'mso-font-kerning:0pt'>1994</span><span style=3D'font-= family: PMingLiU;mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-font-kerning:0pt'>= 180;)。另外,堀敏一:= ;《中國</span><span style=3D'font-family:\83EF\5EB7\4EFF\5B8B\9AD4W4;mso-font-kerning:0pt'>?= 262;</span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-f= ont-kerning: 0pt'>古代東</span><span style=3D'font-family:\83EF\5EB7\4= EFF\5B8B\9AD4W4; mso-font-kerning:0pt'></span><span style=3D'font-fa= mily: PMingLiU;mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-font-kerning:0pt'>= 990;界》(東京,岩波書= ;店,</span><span lang=3DEN-US style=3D'mso-font-kerning:0pt'>1993</span><span style=3D'font-= family: PMingLiU;mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-font-kerning:0pt'>= 180;)、王仲犖‧奧崎裕= 司等:《東</span><span style=3D'font-family:\83EF\5EB7\4EFF\5B8B\9AD4W4;mso-font-kerning:0pt'>?= 307;</span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-f= ont-kerning: 0pt'>世界史探究》(東ߞ= 0;,汲古書院,</span><span lang=3DEN-US style=3D'mso-font-kerning:0pt'>1986</span><span style=3D'font-= family: PMingLiU;mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-font-kerning:0pt'>= 180;)所收諸論文亦可參= ;照。韓國方面,以全&#= 28023;宗:《韓中關係史ij= 40;究》(漢城,一潮閣= ,</span><span lang=3DEN-US style=3D'mso-font-kerning:0pt'>1950</span><span style=3D'font-= family: PMingLiU;mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-font-kerning:0pt'>= 180;)、全海宗:《東亞= ;文化比較史的研究》&#= 65288;漢城,一潮閣,</span><span lang=3DEN-US style=3D'mso-font-kerning:0pt'>1976</span><span style=3D'font-= family: PMingLiU;mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-font-kerning:0pt'>= 180;)、黃元九:《東亞= ;細亞史研究》(漢城&#= 65292;一潮閣,</span><span lang=3DEN-US style=3D'mso-font-kerning:0pt'>1976</span><span style=3D'font-= family: PMingLiU;mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-font-kerning:0pt'>= 180;)、金翰奎:《古代= ;中國的世界秩序研究&#= 12299;(漢城,一潮閣,</spa= n><span lang=3DEN-US style=3D'mso-font-kerning:0pt'>1982</span><span style=3D'font-= family: PMingLiU;mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-font-kerning:0pt'>A= 289;等最受矚目。</span></p> </div> <div style=3D'mso-element:footnote' id=3Dftn8> <p class=3DMsoFootnoteText><a style=3D'mso-footnote-id:ftn8' href=3D"#_ftnr= ef8" name=3D"_ftn8" title=3D""><span class=3DMsoFootnoteReference><span lang=3DE= N-US><span style=3D'mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span class=3DMsoFootnoteReference><span lang=3DEN-US style=3D'font-size:10.0pt;f= ont-family: "Times New Roman";mso-fareast-font-family:PMingLiU;mso-font-kerning:1.0pt; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:ZH-TW;mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'= >[8]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-f= ont-kerning: 0pt'>前引朱雲影:《中ࢴ= 3;文化對日韓越的影響&= #12299;第一編第四章〈中= 283;科學對於日韓越的影= ;響〉,亦論及此事,&#= 21487;參考。</span></p> </div> <div style=3D'mso-element:footnote' id=3Dftn9> <p class=3DMsoFootnoteText><a style=3D'mso-footnote-id:ftn9' href=3D"#_ftnr= ef9" name=3D"_ftn9" title=3D""><span class=3DMsoFootnoteReference><span lang=3DE= N-US><span style=3D'mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span class=3DMsoFootnoteReference><span lang=3DEN-US style=3D'font-size:10.0pt;f= ont-family: "Times New Roman";mso-fareast-font-family:PMingLiU;mso-font-kerning:1.0pt; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:ZH-TW;mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'= >[9]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-f= ont-kerning: 0pt'>參看鄭德坤:《中ࢴ= 3;文化人類學》(台北&= #65292;華世出版社,</span><span lang=3DEN-US style=3D'mso-font-kerning:0pt'>1980</span><span style=3D'font-= family: PMingLiU;mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-font-kerning:0pt'>A= 289;,頁</span><span lang=3DEN-US style=3D'mso-font-kerning:0pt'> 3</span><span style=3D'font-fa= mily:PMingLiU; mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-font-kerning:0pt'>。</spa= n></p> </div> <div style=3D'mso-element:footnote' id=3Dftn10> <p class=3DMsoFootnoteText><a style=3D'mso-footnote-id:ftn10' href=3D"#_ftn= ref10" name=3D"_ftn10" title=3D""><span class=3DMsoFootnoteReference><span lang=3D= EN-US><span style=3D'mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span class=3DMsoFootnoteReference><span lang=3DEN-US style=3D'font-size:10.0pt;f= ont-family: "Times New Roman";mso-fareast-font-family:PMingLiU;mso-font-kerning:1.0pt; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:ZH-TW;mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'= >[10]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-f= ont-kerning: 0pt'>參看周一良:〈史ੌ= 0;與中日文化關係〉(&= #25910;入中國文化書院講= 436;錄編委會《中外文化= ;比較研究》,北京,&#= 19977;聯書店,</span><span lang=3DEN-US style=3D'mso-font-kerning:0pt'>1988</span><span style=3D'font-= family: PMingLiU;mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-font-kerning:0pt'>A= 289;,頁</span><span lang=3DEN-US style=3D'mso-font-kerning:0pt'>213</span><span style=3D'font-f= amily: PMingLiU;mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-font-kerning:0pt'>A= 374;</span><span lang=3DEN-US style=3D'mso-font-kerning:0pt'>4</span><span style=3D'font-fam= ily:PMingLiU; mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-font-kerning:0pt'>。Ò= 69;引西</span><span style=3D'font-family:"MS PMincho";mso-ascii-font-family:PMingLiU;mso-font-k= erning: 0pt'>嶋</span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-hansi-font-fami= ly: "Times New Roman";mso-font-kerning:0pt'>定生:〈= 6481;</span><span style=3D'font-family:\83EF\5EB7\6977\66F8\9AD4W5;mso-font-kerning:0pt'>?= 307;</span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-f= ont-kerning: 0pt'>世界</span><span style=3D'font-family:\83EF\5EB7\6977\66F8= \9AD4W5; mso-font-kerning:0pt'></span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU; mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-font-kerning:0pt'>日Ĉ= 12;史〉</span><span lang=3DEN-US style=3D'mso-font-kerning:0pt'>2</span><span style=3D'font-fam= ily:PMingLiU; mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-font-kerning:0pt'>。Ŗ= 76;堂明保:〈漢字文化= 圈</span><span style=3D'font-family:\83EF\5EB7\4EFF\5B8B\9AD4W4;mso-font-kerning:0pt'>?= 268;</span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-f= ont-kerning: 0pt'>形成〉(收入《岩ૣ= 4;講座:世界歷史》</span><s= pan lang=3DEN-US style=3D'mso-font-kerning:0pt'>6</span><span style=3D'font-fam= ily:PMingLiU; mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-font-kerning:0pt'>,Ĉ= 81;京,岩波書店,</span><span lang=3DEN-US style=3D'mso-font-kerning:0pt'>1971</span><span style=3D'font-= family: PMingLiU;mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-font-kerning:0pt'>A= 289;。</span></p> </div> <div style=3D'mso-element:footnote' id=3Dftn11> <p class=3DMsoFootnoteText><a style=3D'mso-footnote-id:ftn11' href=3D"#_ftn= ref11" name=3D"_ftn11" title=3D""><span class=3DMsoFootnoteReference><span lang=3D= EN-US><span style=3D'mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span class=3DMsoFootnoteReference><span lang=3DEN-US style=3D'font-size:10.0pt;f= ont-family: "Times New Roman";mso-fareast-font-family:PMingLiU;mso-font-kerning:1.0pt; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:ZH-TW;mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'= >[11]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span lang=3DEN-US> </span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-fam= ily: "Times New Roman";mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>詳細= 說明,參看</span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-f= ont-kerning: 0pt'>拙著:《唐代東亞ਢ= 5;育圈的形成》(台北&= #65292;國立編譯館,<span lang=3DEN-US>1984</span>),〈導論〉= 1532;三、四章,此處註෉= 9;從略。</span></p> </div> <div style=3D'mso-element:footnote' id=3Dftn12> <p class=3DMsoFootnoteText><a style=3D'mso-footnote-id:ftn12' href=3D"#_ftn= ref12" name=3D"_ftn12" title=3D""><span class=3DMsoFootnoteReference><span lang=3D= EN-US><span style=3D'mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span class=3DMsoFootnoteReference><span lang=3DEN-US style=3D'font-size:10.0pt;f= ont-family: "Times New Roman";mso-fareast-font-family:PMingLiU;mso-font-kerning:1.0pt; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:ZH-TW;mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'= >[12]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-f= ont-kerning: 0pt'>參看周一良:〈談ߑ= 3;外文化交流史〉、〈&= #25105;對中外文化交流史= 340;幾點看法〉(均收入= ;前引周一良:《中日&#= 25991;化關係史論》)。</spa= n></p> </div> <div style=3D'mso-element:footnote' id=3Dftn13> <p class=3DMsoFootnoteText><a style=3D'mso-footnote-id:ftn13' href=3D"#_ftn= ref13" name=3D"_ftn13" title=3D""><span class=3DMsoFootnoteReference><span lang=3D= EN-US><span style=3D'mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span class=3DMsoFootnoteReference><span lang=3DEN-US style=3D'font-size:10.0pt;f= ont-family: "Times New Roman";mso-fareast-font-family:PMingLiU;mso-font-kerning:1.0pt; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:ZH-TW;mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'= >[13]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-h= ansi-font-family: "Times New Roman"'>關於日本出土王= 莽時代的「貨泉」、= 2300;貨布」等貨幣,有थ= 6;者質疑而提出可能是&= #22312;日本的仿製品。(= 443;看</span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-f= ont-kerning: 0pt'>西嶋定生:〈大宰ॶ= 0;鴻臚館出土</span><span style=3D'font-family:\83EF\5EB7\4EFF\5B8B\9AD4W6;mso-font-kerning:0pt'>?= 268;</span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-f= ont-kerning: 0pt'>「大泉五十」</span><span style=3D'font-family:\83EF\5EB7\4EFF\5B8B\9AD4W6;mso-font-kerning:0pt'>?= 265;</span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-f= ont-kerning: 0pt'>〉,收入西嶋定生ᦂ= 6;《東</span><span style=3D'font-family:\83EF\5EB7\4EFF\5B8B\9AD4W4;mso-font-kerning:0pt'>?= 307;</span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-f= ont-kerning: 0pt'>世界史論集》第四ࡘ= 7;《東</span><span style=3D'font-family:\83EF\5EB7\4EFF\5B8B\9AD4W4;mso-font-kerning:0pt'>?= 307;</span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-f= ont-kerning: 0pt'>世界</span><span style=3D'font-family:\83EF\5EB7\4EFF\5B8B= \9AD4W6; mso-font-kerning:0pt'></span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU; mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-font-kerning:0pt'>日Ĉ= 12;》,頁<span lang=3DEN-US>271</span>,東京,岩波= 360;店,<span lang=3DEN-US>2002</span>。原刊於<span lang=3DEN-US>= 1988</span>)但中國銅錢的發= 現與銅鏡不同,到現= 2312;尚未發有模製銅錢ᦁ= 2;所以在日本仿製說,&= #20173;有待科學的鑑定。A= 288;參看萇嵐:《中日文= ;化交流的考古學研究&#= 12299;,頁<span lang=3DEN-US>107</span>,北京,中國= 038;會科學出版社,<span lang=3DEN-US>2001</span>)</span></p> </div> <div style=3D'mso-element:footnote' id=3Dftn14> <p class=3DMsoFootnoteText><a style=3D'mso-footnote-id:ftn14' href=3D"#_ftn= ref14" name=3D"_ftn14" title=3D""><span class=3DMsoFootnoteReference><span lang=3D= EN-US><span style=3D'mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span class=3DMsoFootnoteReference><span lang=3DEN-US style=3D'font-size:10.0pt;f= ont-family: "Times New Roman";mso-fareast-font-family:PMingLiU;mso-font-kerning:1.0pt; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:ZH-TW;mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'= >[14]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-f= ont-kerning: 0pt'>參看前引西</span><span style=3D'font-fam= ily: "MS PMincho";mso-ascii-font-family:PMingLiU;mso-font-kerning:0pt'>嶋<= /span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-f= ont-kerning: 0pt'>定生:〈東</span><span style=3D'font-fam= ily: \83EF\5EB7\6977\66F8\9AD4W5;mso-font-kerning:0pt'><= /span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-f= ont-kerning: 0pt'>世界</span><span style=3D'font-family:\83EF\5EB7\6977\66F8= \9AD4W5; mso-font-kerning:0pt'></span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU; mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-font-kerning:0pt'>日Ĉ= 12;史〉</span><span lang=3DEN-US style=3D'mso-font-kerning:0pt'>1</span><span style=3D'font-fam= ily:PMingLiU; mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-font-kerning:0pt'>、ş= 99;</span><span style=3D'font-family:"MS PMincho";mso-ascii-font-family:PMingLiU;mso-font-k= erning: 0pt'>嶋</span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-hansi-font-fami= ly: "Times New Roman";mso-font-kerning:0pt'>定生:《= 6085;本歷史</span><span style=3D'font-family:\83EF\5EB7\4EFF\5B8B\9AD4W4;mso-font-kerning:0pt'>?= 268;</span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-f= ont-kerning: 0pt'>國際環境》(東京ᦁ= 2;東京大學出版會,</span><s= pan lang=3DEN-US style=3D'mso-font-kerning:0pt'>1985</span><span style=3D'font-= family: PMingLiU;mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-font-kerning:0pt'>A= 289;,頁</span><span lang=3DEN-US style=3D'mso-font-kerning:0pt'>19</span><span style=3D'font-fa= mily:PMingLiU; mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-font-kerning:0pt'>。</spa= n></p> </div> <div style=3D'mso-element:footnote' id=3Dftn15> <p class=3DMsoFootnoteText><a style=3D'mso-footnote-id:ftn15' href=3D"#_ftn= ref15" name=3D"_ftn15" title=3D""><span class=3DMsoFootnoteReference><span lang=3D= EN-US><span style=3D'mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span class=3DMsoFootnoteReference><span lang=3DEN-US style=3D'font-size:10.0pt;f= ont-family: "Times New Roman";mso-fareast-font-family:PMingLiU;mso-font-kerning:1.0pt; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:ZH-TW;mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'= >[15]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-f= ont-kerning: 0pt'>菊池英夫:〈總說Ӎ= 7;(收入唐代史研究會&= #65306;《隋唐帝國</span><span style=3D'font-family:\83EF\5EB7\6977\66F8\9AD4W5;mso-font-kerning:0pt'>?= 262;</span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-f= ont-kerning: 0pt'>東</span><span style=3D'font-family:\83EF\5EB7\6977\66F8\9AD4W5; mso-font-kerning:0pt'></span><span style=3D'font-fa= mily: PMingLiU;mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-font-kerning:0pt'>= 990;界》,東京,汲古書= ;院,</span><span lang=3DEN-US style=3D'mso-font-kerning:0pt'>1979</span><span style=3D'font-= family: PMingLiU;mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-font-kerning:0pt'>A= 289;,頁</span><span lang=3DEN-US style=3D'mso-font-kerning:0pt'>40</span><span style=3D'font-fa= mily:PMingLiU; mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-font-kerning:0pt'>。</spa= n></p> </div> <div style=3D'mso-element:footnote' id=3Dftn16> <p class=3DMsoFootnoteText><a style=3D'mso-footnote-id:ftn16' href=3D"#_ftn= ref16" name=3D"_ftn16" title=3D""><span class=3DMsoFootnoteReference><span lang=3D= EN-US><span style=3D'mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span class=3DMsoFootnoteReference><span lang=3DEN-US style=3D'font-size:10.0pt;f= ont-family: "Times New Roman";mso-fareast-font-family:PMingLiU;mso-font-kerning:1.0pt; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:ZH-TW;mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'= >[16]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-f= ont-kerning: 0pt'>例如明治新政府於ਟ= 3;元之前的慶應四</span><span lang=3DEN-US style=3D'mso-font-kerning:0pt'>(1868)</span><span style=3D'fon= t-family: PMingLiU;mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-font-kerning:0pt'>= 180;閏四月,既已著手編= ;纂「假刑律」,其藍&#= 26412;是行用於熊本藩的{= 00;刑法草書」與「大清= 律例彙纂」。而熊本= 4281;的「刑法草書」,ਕ= 8;最近研究,是參照明&= #24459;例編成的,其於熊= 412;藩行用百多年</span><span lang=3DEN-US style=3D'mso-font-kerning:0pt'>(1755</span><span style=3D'font= -family: PMingLiU;mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-font-kerning:0pt'>A= 374;</span><span lang=3DEN-US style=3D'mso-font-kerning:0pt'>1867) </span><span style=3D'fon= t-family: PMingLiU;mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-font-kerning:0pt'> = 290;(參看高鹽博:〈熊= ;本藩</span><span style=3D'font-family:\83EF\5EB7\6977\66F8\9AD4W5;mso-font-kerning:0pt'>?= 268;</span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-f= ont-kerning: 0pt'>法制資料〉,國學༉= 8;大學《日本文化研究&= #25152;報》</span><span lang=3DEN-US style=3D'mso-font-kerning:0pt'>28-1</span><span style=3D'font-= family: PMingLiU;mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-font-kerning:0pt'>A= 292;</span><span lang=3DEN-US style=3D'mso-font-kerning:0pt'>1991-5</span><span style=3D'fon= t-family: PMingLiU;mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-font-kerning:0pt'> = 290;高鹽博:〈熊本藩「= ;刑法草書」</span><span style=3D'font-family:\83EF\5EB7\4EFF\5B8B\9AD4W4;mso-font-kerning:0pt'>?= 268;</span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-f= ont-kerning: 0pt'>成立過程〉(國學༉= 8;大學《日本文化研究&= #32000;要》</span><span lang=3DEN-US style=3D'mso-font-kerning:0pt'>65</span><span style=3D'font-fa= mily:PMingLiU; mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-font-kerning:0pt'>,</spa= n><span lang=3DEN-US style=3D'mso-font-kerning:0pt'>1990-3</span><span style=3D'fon= t-family: PMingLiU;mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-font-kerning:0pt'>A= 289;。又,明治元(</span><span lang=3DEN-US style=3D'mso-font-kerning:0pt'>1868</span><span style=3D'font-= family: PMingLiU;mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-font-kerning:0pt'>A= 289;年至二年起草的「刑= ;法新律草稿」,三年&#= 21313;二月,制定統一的Ò= 09;法典曰「新律綱領」= 等,亦均採用明、清= 4459;作藍本。前者,最๡= 7;才被發現。參看高鹽&= #21338;:〈新出</span><span style=3D'font-family:\83EF\5EB7\4EFF\5B8B\9AD4W4;mso-font-kerning:0pt'>?= 268;</span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-f= ont-kerning: 0pt'>「刑法新律草稿</span><span style=3D'font-family:\83EF\5EB7\4EFF\5B8B\9AD4W4;mso-font-kerning:0pt'>?= 265;</span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-f= ont-kerning: 0pt'>」(收入手塚豐:Ӎ= 8;近代日本史</span><span style=3D'font-family:\83EF\5EB7\4EFF\5B8B\9AD4W4;mso-font-kerning:0pt'>?= 268;</span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-f= ont-kerning: 0pt'>新研究Ⅶ》,東京,= ;</span><span lang=3DEN-US style=3D'mso-font-kerning:0pt'>1989</span><span style=3D'font-= family: PMingLiU;mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-font-kerning:0pt'>= 180;),頁</span><span lang=3DEN-US style=3D'mso-font-kerning:0pt'>111</span><span style=3D'font-f= amily: PMingLiU;mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-font-kerning:0pt'>A= 374;</span><span lang=3DEN-US style=3D'mso-font-kerning:0pt'>182</span><span style=3D'font-f= amily: PMingLiU;mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-font-kerning:0pt'> = 290;</span></p> </div> <div style=3D'mso-element:footnote' id=3Dftn17> <p class=3DMsoFootnoteText><a style=3D'mso-footnote-id:ftn17' href=3D"#_ftn= ref17" name=3D"_ftn17" title=3D""><span class=3DMsoFootnoteReference><span lang=3D= EN-US><span style=3D'mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span class=3DMsoFootnoteReference><span lang=3DEN-US style=3D'font-size:10.0pt;f= ont-family: "Times New Roman";mso-fareast-font-family:PMingLiU;mso-font-kerning:1.0pt; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:ZH-TW;mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'= >[17]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span lang=3DEN-US> </span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-hansi-font-fam= ily: "Times New Roman"'>參看前引拙著:= 《唐代東亞教育圈的= 4418;成》各章。</span></p> </div> <div style=3D'mso-element:footnote' id=3Dftn18> <p class=3DMsoFootnoteText><a style=3D'mso-footnote-id:ftn18' href=3D"#_ftn= ref18" name=3D"_ftn18" title=3D""><span class=3DMsoFootnoteReference><span lang=3D= EN-US><span style=3D'mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span class=3DMsoFootnoteReference><span lang=3DEN-US style=3D'font-size:10.0pt;f= ont-family: "Times New Roman";mso-fareast-font-family:PMingLiU;mso-font-kerning:1.0pt; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:ZH-TW;mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'= >[18]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span lang=3DEN-US> </span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-fam= ily: "Times New Roman";mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>有關= 中世「大學」的專業= 4615;團體或行會性質的৶= 6;討,參看滕大春主編&= #65306;《外國教育通史》</sp= an><span lang=3DEN-US>2</span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-fam= ily: "Times New Roman";mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>(濟= 南,山東教育出版社= 5292;</span><span lang=3DEN-US>1989</span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-= family: "Times New Roman";mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>),= 第八章第三節,頁</span><span lang=3DEN-US>134</span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-f= amily: "Times New Roman";mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>(姜= 文閔執筆)。</span></p> </div> <div style=3D'mso-element:footnote' id=3Dftn19> <p class=3DMsoFootnoteText><a style=3D'mso-footnote-id:ftn19' href=3D"#_ftn= ref19" name=3D"_ftn19" title=3D""><span class=3DMsoFootnoteReference><span lang=3D= EN-US><span style=3D'mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span class=3DMsoFootnoteReference><span lang=3DEN-US style=3D'font-size:10.0pt;f= ont-family: "Times New Roman";mso-fareast-font-family:PMingLiU;mso-font-kerning:1.0pt; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:ZH-TW;mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'= >[19]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span lang=3DEN-US> </span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-fam= ily: "Times New Roman";mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>關於= 天下秩序問題,筆者= 4050;有多篇論文發表,ੌ= 8;近加以補訂,彙集成&= #23560;書,曰:</span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'> = 298;東亞古代的政治與教= ;育》(台灣大學東亞&#= 25991;明研究中心,<span lang=3DEN-US>2003</span>),讀者可參= 8321;指教。以下所述,਷= 9;有關政治秩序方面的&= #31680;略,不再一一標示= 986;處。<span lang=3DEN-US><o:p></o:p></span></span></p> </div> <div style=3D'mso-element:footnote' id=3Dftn20> <p class=3DMsoFootnoteText><a style=3D'mso-footnote-id:ftn20' href=3D"#_ftn= ref20" name=3D"_ftn20" title=3D""><span class=3DMsoFootnoteReference><span lang=3D= EN-US><span style=3D'mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span class=3DMsoFootnoteReference><span lang=3DEN-US style=3D'font-size:10.0pt;f= ont-family: "Times New Roman";mso-fareast-font-family:PMingLiU;mso-font-kerning:1.0pt; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:ZH-TW;mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'= >[20]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span lang=3DEN-US> </span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-fam= ily: "Times New Roman";mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>近來= 討論傳統中國的對外= 8364;係,似側重於君臣ߔ= 3;間的冊封與朝貢關係&= #65292;其重要代表,為西= 947;定生的〈冊封體制〉= ;論、全海宗的《朝貢&#= 21046;度》論。西嶋氏於z= 96;六~八世紀</span><span style=3D'font-family:\83EF\5EB7\6977\66F8\9AD4W5;mso-ascii-font-family:"CG = Times \(PCL6\)"; mso-hansi-font-family:"CG Times \(PCL6\)"'></span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-h= ansi-font-family: "Times New Roman"'>東</span><span style=3D'font-family:\83EF\5EB7\697= 7\66F8\9AD4W5; mso-ascii-font-family:"CG Times \(PCL6\)";mso-hansi-font-family:"CG Times \= (PCL6\)"'></span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-h= ansi-font-family: "Times New Roman"'>〉(收入岩波講= 座《日本歷史》</span><span lang=3DEN-US>2</span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-fam= ily: "Times New Roman";mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>,東= 京,</span><span lang=3DEN-US>1962</span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-= family: "Times New Roman";mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>)一= 文首先提出此說,其= 4460;諸論文均踵之。全૲= 3;宗:〈韓中朝貢關係&= #27010;觀〉(收入全海宗A= 306;《韓中關係史研究》= ;,漢城,一潮閣,</span><sp= an lang=3DEN-US>1981</span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-= family: "Times New Roman";mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>年重= 版發行。原載《東洋= 1490;學研究》</span><span lang=3DEN-US>1</span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-fam= ily: "Times New Roman";mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>,</span><= span lang=3DEN-US>1966-10</span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-fo= nt-family: "Times New Roman";mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>),= 以後亦續倡此說。此= 2806;如:</span><span lang=3DEN-US>Fairbank,John K.,ed,<i>The Chinese World Order</i></span><i><s= pan style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-h= ansi-font-family: "Times New Roman"'>:</span><span lang=3DEN-US>Traditional China̵= 7;s Foreign Relations.</span></i><span lang=3DEN-US> Cambridge,Mass.</span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-h= ansi-font-family: "Times New Roman"'>:</span><span lang=3DEN-US>Harvard University Press,1968.</span></p> </div> <div style=3D'mso-element:footnote' id=3Dftn21> <p class=3DMsoFootnoteText><a style=3D'mso-footnote-id:ftn21' href=3D"#_ftn= ref21" name=3D"_ftn21" title=3D""><span class=3DMsoFootnoteReference><span lang=3D= EN-US><span style=3D'mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span class=3DMsoFootnoteReference><span lang=3DEN-US style=3D'font-size:10.0pt;f= ont-family: "Times New Roman";mso-fareast-font-family:PMingLiU;mso-font-kerning:1.0pt; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:ZH-TW;mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'= >[21]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span lang=3DEN-US> </span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-fam= ily: "Times New Roman";mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>參看= 福宿孝夫:《日本古= 2120;銘好太王碑文》(ధ= 9;岡,中國書店,</span><span lang=3DEN-US>1991</span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-= family: "Times New Roman";mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>),= 頁</span><span lang=3DEN-US>12-19</span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font= -family: "Times New Roman";mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>、</span><= span lang=3DEN-US>178-180</span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-fo= nt-family: "Times New Roman";mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>。</span><= /p> </div> <div style=3D'mso-element:footnote' id=3Dftn22> <p class=3DMsoFootnoteText><a style=3D'mso-footnote-id:ftn22' href=3D"#_ftn= ref22" name=3D"_ftn22" title=3D""><span class=3DMsoFootnoteReference><span lang=3D= EN-US><span style=3D'mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span class=3DMsoFootnoteReference><span lang=3DEN-US style=3D'font-size:10.0pt;f= ont-family: "Times New Roman";mso-fareast-font-family:PMingLiU;mso-font-kerning:1.0pt; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:ZH-TW;mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'= >[22]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span lang=3DEN-US> </span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-fam= ily: "Times New Roman";mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>此後= 繼續用「治天下」一= 5422;,尚可見於繼體天௚= 3;、欽明天皇、用明天&= #30343;、推古天皇等。參= 475;西嶋定生:《日本歷= ;史</span><span style=3D'font-family:\83EF\5EB7\6977\66F8\9AD4W5;mso-ascii-font-family:"CG = Times \(PCL6\)"; mso-hansi-font-family:"CG Times \(PCL6\)"'></span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-h= ansi-font-family: "Times New Roman"'>國際環境》(東= 京,東京大學出版會= 5292;</span><span lang=3DEN-US>1985</span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-= family: "Times New Roman";mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>),= 頁</span><span lang=3DEN-US>76-80</span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font= -family: "Times New Roman";mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>。</span><= /p> </div> <div style=3D'mso-element:footnote' id=3Dftn23> <p class=3DMsoFootnoteText><a style=3D'mso-footnote-id:ftn23' href=3D"#_ftn= ref23" name=3D"_ftn23" title=3D""><span class=3DMsoFootnoteReference><span lang=3D= EN-US><span style=3D'mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span class=3DMsoFootnoteReference><span lang=3DEN-US style=3D'font-size:10.0pt;f= ont-family: "Times New Roman";mso-fareast-font-family:PMingLiU;mso-font-kerning:1.0pt; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:ZH-TW;mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'= >[23]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span lang=3DEN-US> </span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-fam= ily: "Times New Roman";mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>參看= 韓昇:《日本古代的= 2823;陸移民研究》(台ࡏ= 1;,文津出版社,</span><span lang=3DEN-US>1995</span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-= family: "Times New Roman";mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>),= 頁</span><span lang=3DEN-US>9-10</span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-= family: "Times New Roman";mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>。</span><= /p> </div> <div style=3D'mso-element:footnote' id=3Dftn24> <p class=3DMsoFootnoteText><a style=3D'mso-footnote-id:ftn24' href=3D"#_ftn= ref24" name=3D"_ftn24" title=3D""><span class=3DMsoFootnoteReference><span lang=3D= EN-US><span style=3D'mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span class=3DMsoFootnoteReference><span lang=3DEN-US style=3D'font-size:10.0pt;f= ont-family: "Times New Roman";mso-fareast-font-family:PMingLiU;mso-font-kerning:1.0pt; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:ZH-TW;mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'= >[24]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span lang=3DEN-US> </span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-fam= ily: "Times New Roman";mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>參看= </span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>= 338;</span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-h= ansi-font-family: "Times New Roman"'>本太郎:《聖德= 太子》(東京,吉川= 4344;文館,</span><span lang=3DEN-US>1980</span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-= family: "Times New Roman";mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>年</span><= span lang=3DEN-US>3</span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-fam= ily: "Times New Roman";mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>版;= </span><span lang=3DEN-US>1979</span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-= family: "Times New Roman";mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>年初= 版),頁</span><span lang=3DEN-US>93</span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-fa= mily: "Times New Roman";mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>。</span><= /p> </div> <div style=3D'mso-element:footnote' id=3Dftn25> <p class=3DMsoFootnoteText><a style=3D'mso-footnote-id:ftn25' href=3D"#_ftn= ref25" name=3D"_ftn25" title=3D""><span class=3DMsoFootnoteReference><span lang=3D= EN-US><span style=3D'mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span class=3DMsoFootnoteReference><span lang=3DEN-US style=3D'font-size:10.0pt;f= ont-family: "Times New Roman";mso-fareast-font-family:PMingLiU;mso-font-kerning:1.0pt; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:ZH-TW;mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'= >[25]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span lang=3DEN-US> </span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-fam= ily: "Times New Roman";mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>詳細= 分析,參看</span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>= 069;引拙著:《唐代東亞= ;教育圈的形成》,頁<s= pan lang=3DEN-US>272-277</span>。</span></p> </div> <div style=3D'mso-element:footnote' id=3Dftn26> <p class=3DMsoFootnoteText><a style=3D'mso-footnote-id:ftn26' href=3D"#_ftn= ref26" name=3D"_ftn26" title=3D""><span class=3DMsoFootnoteReference><span lang=3D= EN-US><span style=3D'mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span class=3DMsoFootnoteReference><span lang=3DEN-US style=3D'font-size:10.0pt;f= ont-family: "Times New Roman";mso-fareast-font-family:PMingLiU;mso-font-kerning:1.0pt; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:ZH-TW;mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'= >[26]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span lang=3DEN-US> </span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-fam= ily: "Times New Roman";mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>王家= 驊亦略論此事,參看= 9579;家驊:《儒家思想ഀ= 7;日本文化》(浙江人&= #27665;出版社,</span><span lang=3DEN-US>1990</span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-= family: "Times New Roman";mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>年第= </span><span lang=3DEN-US>1</span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-fam= ily: "Times New Roman";mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>刷,= </span><span lang=3DEN-US>1996</span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-= family: "Times New Roman";mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>年第= </span><span lang=3DEN-US>3</span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-fam= ily: "Times New Roman";mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>次印= 刷),第一、二章。= 6377;關大學寮教育,參௧= 5;</span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman";color= :black'>拙著:《日本古代= 3416;與唐制的比較研究Ӎ= 9;<span lang=3DEN-US>(</span>臺北,學海出୭= 6;社,民國六十六年初&= #29256;,七十五年增訂一= 256;<span lang=3DEN-US>)</span>。</span></p> </div> <div style=3D'mso-element:footnote' id=3Dftn27> <p class=3DMsoFootnoteText><a style=3D'mso-footnote-id:ftn27' href=3D"#_ftn= ref27" name=3D"_ftn27" title=3D""><span class=3DMsoFootnoteReference><span lang=3D= EN-US><span style=3D'mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span class=3DMsoFootnoteReference><span lang=3DEN-US style=3D'font-size:10.0pt;f= ont-family: "Times New Roman";mso-fareast-font-family:PMingLiU;mso-font-kerning:1.0pt; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:ZH-TW;mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'= >[27]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span lang=3DEN-US> </span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-fam= ily: "Times New Roman";mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>高句= 麗〈中原碑〉發現的= 2147;緯,詳見檀國大學੩= 7;史學會執行《史學志&= #12299;</span><span lang=3DEN-US>13</span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-fa= mily: "Times New Roman";mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>,</span><= span lang=3DEN-US>1979-11</span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-fo= nt-family: "Times New Roman";mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>。</span><= /p> </div> <div style=3D'mso-element:footnote' id=3Dftn28> <p class=3DMsoFootnoteText><a style=3D'mso-footnote-id:ftn28' href=3D"#_ftn= ref28" name=3D"_ftn28" title=3D""><span class=3DMsoFootnoteReference><span lang=3D= EN-US><span style=3D'mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span class=3DMsoFootnoteReference><span lang=3DEN-US style=3D'font-size:10.0pt;f= ont-family: "Times New Roman";mso-fareast-font-family:PMingLiU;mso-font-kerning:1.0pt; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:ZH-TW;mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'= >[28]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span lang=3DEN-US> </span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-fam= ily: "Times New Roman";mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>參看= 齋藤忠編著:</span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'> = 298;古代朝鮮.日本金石= ;文資料集成》(東京&#= 65292;吉川弘文館,<span lang=3DEN-US>1983</span>),頁<span lang=3DEN-US>34-35</s= pan>。但頁<span lang=3DEN-US>34</span>年表中將此碑Ò= 15;為真興王<span lang=3DEN-US>28</span>年,恐欠妥。œ= 95;碑文明記:「戊子秋= 八月巡管境」,文首= 0134;曰:</span><span style=3D'font-family:DFKai-SB;mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'> = 300;</span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>= 843;月廿一日癸未</span><span style=3D'font-family:DFKai-SB;mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'> = 301;</span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>A= 292;則戊子年即真興王在= ;位<span lang=3DEN-US>29</span>年<span lang=3DEN-US>(568</span>年<span lang=3DEN-US>)</span>也。<span lang=3DEN-US><o:p></o:p></span><= /span></p> </div> <div style=3D'mso-element:footnote' id=3Dftn29> <p class=3DMsoFootnoteText><a style=3D'mso-footnote-id:ftn29' href=3D"#_ftn= ref29" name=3D"_ftn29" title=3D""><span class=3DMsoFootnoteReference><span lang=3D= EN-US><span style=3D'mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span class=3DMsoFootnoteReference><span lang=3DEN-US style=3D'font-size:10.0pt;f= ont-family: "Times New Roman";mso-fareast-font-family:PMingLiU;mso-font-kerning:1.0pt; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:ZH-TW;mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'= >[29]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span lang=3DEN-US> </span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-fam= ily: "Times New Roman";mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>參看= </span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>= 069;引拙著:《唐代東亞= ;教育圈的形成》,頁<s= pan lang=3DEN-US>340-342</span>。</span></p> </div> <div style=3D'mso-element:footnote' id=3Dftn30> <p class=3DMsoFootnoteText><a style=3D'mso-footnote-id:ftn30' href=3D"#_ftn= ref30" name=3D"_ftn30" title=3D""><span class=3DMsoFootnoteReference><span lang=3D= EN-US><span style=3D'mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span class=3DMsoFootnoteReference><span lang=3DEN-US style=3D'font-size:10.0pt;f= ont-family: "Times New Roman";mso-fareast-font-family:PMingLiU;mso-font-kerning:1.0pt; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:ZH-TW;mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'= >[30]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span lang=3DEN-US> </span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-fam= ily: "Times New Roman";mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>參看= 久木幸男:《日本古= 0195;學校</span><span style=3D'font-family:\83EF\5EB7\6977\66F8\9AD4W5;mso-ascii-font-family:"CG = Times \(PCL6\)"; mso-hansi-font-family:"CG Times \(PCL6\)"'></span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-h= ansi-font-family: "Times New Roman"'>研究》(東京,= 玉川大學出版部,</span><span lang=3DEN-US>1990</span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-= family: "Times New Roman";mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>),= 頁</span><span lang=3DEN-US>65-66</span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font= -family: "Times New Roman";mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>、</span><= span lang=3DEN-US>204-206</span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-fo= nt-family: "Times New Roman";mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>。</span><= /p> </div> <div style=3D'mso-element:footnote' id=3Dftn31> <p class=3DMsoFootnoteText><a style=3D'mso-footnote-id:ftn31' href=3D"#_ftn= ref31" name=3D"_ftn31" title=3D""><span class=3DMsoFootnoteReference><span lang=3D= EN-US><span style=3D'mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span class=3DMsoFootnoteReference><span lang=3DEN-US style=3D'font-size:10.0pt;f= ont-family: "Times New Roman";mso-fareast-font-family:PMingLiU;mso-font-kerning:1.0pt; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:ZH-TW;mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'= >[31]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span lang=3DEN-US> </span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-fam= ily: "Times New Roman";mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>詳細= 檢討,參看</span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>= 069;引拙著:《唐代東亞= ;教育圈的形成》,第&#= 19968;章。</span></p> </div> <div style=3D'mso-element:footnote' id=3Dftn32> <p class=3DMsoFootnoteText><a style=3D'mso-footnote-id:ftn32' href=3D"#_ftn= ref32" name=3D"_ftn32" title=3D""><span class=3DMsoFootnoteReference><span lang=3D= EN-US><span style=3D'mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span class=3DMsoFootnoteReference><span lang=3DEN-US style=3D'font-size:10.0pt;f= ont-family: "Times New Roman";mso-fareast-font-family:PMingLiU;mso-font-kerning:1.0pt; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:ZH-TW;mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'= >[32]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span lang=3DEN-US> </span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-fam= ily: "Times New Roman";mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>參看= 小松周吉:〈近代國= 7665;教育制度</span><span style=3D'font-family:\83EF\5EB7\6977\66F8\9AD4W5;mso-ascii-font-family:"CG = Times \(PCL6\)"; mso-hansi-font-family:"CG Times \(PCL6\)"'></span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-h= ansi-font-family: "Times New Roman"'>成立〉</span><span lang=3DEN-US>(</spa= n><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-h= ansi-font-family: "Times New Roman"'>收入梅根悟監修= 《世界教育史大系》</s= pan><span lang=3DEN-US>1</span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-fam= ily: "Times New Roman";mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>.《= 日本教育史》</span><span lang=3DEN-US>1</span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-fam= ily: "Times New Roman";mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>,東= 京,講談社,</span><span lang=3DEN-US>1976)</span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font= -family: "Times New Roman";mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>,頁= </span><span lang=3DEN-US>220-226</span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-fo= nt-family: "Times New Roman";mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>。</span><= /p> </div> <div style=3D'mso-element:footnote' id=3Dftn33> <p class=3DMsoFootnoteText><a style=3D'mso-footnote-id:ftn33' href=3D"#_ftn= ref33" name=3D"_ftn33" title=3D""><span class=3DMsoFootnoteReference><span lang=3D= EN-US><span style=3D'mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span class=3DMsoFootnoteReference><span lang=3DEN-US style=3D'font-size:10.0pt;f= ont-family: "Times New Roman";mso-fareast-font-family:PMingLiU;mso-font-kerning:1.0pt; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:ZH-TW;mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'= >[33]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span lang=3DEN-US> </span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-fam= ily: "Times New Roman";mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>韓基= 彥著、井上義巳.韓= 2522;彥共譯:《韓國教ೞ= 6;史》(東京,廣池學&= #22290;出版部,</span><span lang=3DEN-US>1965</span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-= family: "Times New Roman";mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>),= 頁</span><span lang=3DEN-US>233</span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-f= amily: "Times New Roman";mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>。梅= 根悟監修:《世界教= 2946;史大系》</span><span lang=3DEN-US>5</span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-fam= ily: "Times New Roman";mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>.《= 朝鮮教育史》,東京= 5292;講談社,</span><span lang=3DEN-US>1975)</span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font= -family: "Times New Roman";mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>,第= 六章〈朝鮮近代</span><span style=3D'font-family:\83EF\5EB7\4EFF\5B8B\9AD4W6;mso-ascii-font-family:"Tim= es New Roman"'></span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-h= ansi-font-family: "Times New Roman"'>教育</span><span style=3D'font-family:\83EF\= 5EB7\4EFF\5B8B\9AD4W6; mso-ascii-font-family:"Times New Roman"'></span><span lang=3DEN-US style=3D'mso-fareast-font-family:\83EF\5EB7\4EFF\5B8B\9AD4W6'>= ?</span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-h= ansi-font-family: "Times New Roman"'>〉,頁</span><span lang=3DEN-US>230-23= 4</span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-family:"Times New Roman";mso-h= ansi-font-family: "Times New Roman"'>。</span></p> </div> <div style=3D'mso-element:footnote' id=3Dftn34> <p class=3DMsoFootnoteText><a style=3D'mso-footnote-id:ftn34' href=3D"#_ftn= ref34" name=3D"_ftn34" title=3D""><span class=3DMsoFootnoteReference><span lang=3D= EN-US><span style=3D'mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span class=3DMsoFootnoteReference><span lang=3DEN-US style=3D'font-size:10.0pt;f= ont-family: "Times New Roman";mso-fareast-font-family:PMingLiU;mso-font-kerning:1.0pt; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:ZH-TW;mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'= >[34]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span lang=3DEN-US> </span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-fam= ily: "Times New Roman";mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>參看= 陶鎔:〈中越外交關= 0418;史略〉(收入郭廷ߣ= 7;等:《中越文化論集&= #12299;</span><span lang=3DEN-US>2</span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-fam= ily: "Times New Roman";mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>,台= 北,中華文化出版事= 6989;委員會,</span><span lang=3DEN-US>1956</span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-= family: "Times New Roman";mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>年)= ,頁</span><span lang=3DEN-US>214</span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-f= amily: "Times New Roman";mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>;羅= 懷:〈儒學在越南〉= 5288;收入前引郭廷以等ᦂ= 6;《中越文化論集》</span><s= pan lang=3DEN-US>1</span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-fam= ily: "Times New Roman";mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>),= 頁</span><span lang=3DEN-US>144</span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-f= amily: "Times New Roman";mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>。</span><= /p> </div> <div style=3D'mso-element:footnote' id=3Dftn35> <p class=3DMsoFootnoteText><a style=3D'mso-footnote-id:ftn35' href=3D"#_ftn= ref35" name=3D"_ftn35" title=3D""><span class=3DMsoFootnoteReference><span lang=3D= EN-US><span style=3D'mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span class=3DMsoFootnoteReference><span lang=3DEN-US style=3D'font-size:10.0pt;f= ont-family: "Times New Roman";mso-fareast-font-family:PMingLiU;mso-font-kerning:1.0pt; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:ZH-TW;mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'= >[35]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span lang=3DEN-US> </span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-fam= ily: "Times New Roman";mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>編纂= 出版委員會:《中國= 5945;育大系.歷代教育࠸= 6;度考》下卷(武漢,&= #28246;北教育出版社,</span><span lang=3DEN-US>1994</span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-= family: "Times New Roman";mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>),= 頁</span><span lang=3DEN-US>1770</span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-= family: "Times New Roman";mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>引《= 奏定學堂章程》。</span></p> </div> <div style=3D'mso-element:footnote' id=3Dftn36> <p class=3DMsoFootnoteText><a style=3D'mso-footnote-id:ftn36' href=3D"#_ftn= ref36" name=3D"_ftn36" title=3D""><span class=3DMsoFootnoteReference><span lang=3D= EN-US><span style=3D'mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span class=3DMsoFootnoteReference><span lang=3DEN-US style=3D'font-size:10.0pt;f= ont-family: "Times New Roman";mso-fareast-font-family:PMingLiU;mso-font-kerning:1.0pt; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:ZH-TW;mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'= >[36]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span lang=3DEN-US> </span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-fam= ily: "Times New Roman";mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>蔡元= 培:〈對于新教育之= 4847;見〉,收入《蔡元࣌= 1;全集》</span><span lang=3DEN-US>2</span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-fam= ily: "Times New Roman";mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>(北= 京,中華書局,</span><span lang=3DEN-US>1984</span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-= family: "Times New Roman";mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>),= 頁</span><span lang=3DEN-US>130~7</span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font= -family: "Times New Roman";mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>。此= 文據《臨時政府公報= 2299;第</span><span lang=3DEN-US>13</span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-fa= mily: "Times New Roman";mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>號</span><= span lang=3DEN-US>(1912</span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font= -family: "Times New Roman";mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>年</span><= span lang=3DEN-US>2</span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-fam= ily: "Times New Roman";mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>月</span><= span lang=3DEN-US>11</span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-fa= mily: "Times New Roman";mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>日</span><= span lang=3DEN-US>)</span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-fam= ily: "Times New Roman";mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>而錄= 。又見於《民立報》</s= pan><span lang=3DEN-US>1912~2.8.9.10</span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-as= cii-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>日、= 《教育雜誌》</span><span lang=3DEN-US>3-1(1912-2)</span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-asci= i-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>、《= 東方雜志》</span><span lang=3DEN-US>8-10(1912-4)</span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-asc= ii-font-family: "Times New Roman";mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>。</span><= /p> </div> <div style=3D'mso-element:footnote' id=3Dftn37> <p class=3DMsoFootnoteText><a style=3D'mso-footnote-id:ftn37' href=3D"#_ftn= ref37" name=3D"_ftn37" title=3D""><span class=3DMsoFootnoteReference><span lang=3D= EN-US><span style=3D'mso-special-character:footnote'><![if !supportFootnotes]><span class=3DMsoFootnoteReference><span lang=3DEN-US style=3D'font-size:10.0pt;f= ont-family: "Times New Roman";mso-fareast-font-family:PMingLiU;mso-font-kerning:1.0pt; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;mso-fareast-language:ZH-TW;mso-bidi-language:AR-SA'= >[37]</span></span><![endif]></span></span></span></a><span lang=3DEN-US> </span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-fam= ily: "Times New Roman";mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>詳細= 討論,參看黃俊傑:= 2296;試論儒學的宗教性ࠣ= 9;涵〉(《台大歷史學&= #22577;》</span><span lang=3DEN-US>23</span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-fa= mily: "Times New Roman";mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>,</span><= span lang=3DEN-US>1999</span><span style=3D'font-family:PMingLiU;mso-ascii-font-= family: "Times New Roman";mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"'>)。= </span></p> </div> </div> </body> </html> ------=_NextPart_01C61253.88D67760 Content-Location: file:///C:/B1343A13/kms.files/header.htm 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