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課程來源:TED
     

 

Erik Johansson 談不可思議的攝影

Erik Johansson: Impossible photography

 

Photo of three lions hunting on the Serengeti.

講者:Erik Johansson

2011年11月演講,2012年2月在TED上線

 

翻譯:洪曉慧

編輯:朱學恆

簡繁轉換:洪曉慧

後製:洪曉慧

字幕影片後制:謝旻均

 

影片請按此下載

MAC及手持裝置版本請按此下載

閱讀中文字幕純文字版本

 

關於這場演講

Erik Johannson 創造擁有不可思議場景的逼真照片-他捕捉的是想法,而非某個時刻。在這場解析作法的詼諧演講中,這位Photoshop魔法師介紹了他使這些不可思議場景變得栩栩如生,並讓它們擁有視覺合理性的原則。

 

關於Erik Johansson

攝影師Erik Johannson創作不可思議,卻極為逼真的影像,他捕捉的是一個想法,而非某個時刻。

 

為什麼要聽他演講

Erik Johannson是一位自學攝影師,學習如何將照片修飾成不可思議的特殊影像。由祖母帶大的他喜愛繪畫,並沉浸於電玩世界,他藉由電腦自然地將這兩項嗜好融合成一項技術,製作無法由相機捕捉的畫面。

 

「誰不曾希望能消除及扭曲自己的特徵?或在犯錯後往自己臉上打一拳?」

-環保塗鴉網站

 

Erik Johansson的英語網上資料

 

[TED科技‧娛樂‧設計]

已有中譯字幕的TED影片目錄(繁體)(簡體)。請注意繁簡目錄是不一樣的。

 

Erik Johansson 談不可思議的攝影

 

我要在此分享我的攝影作品,或者,這算是攝影嗎?當然,因為這是一張你無法用相機拍出的照片。

 

然而,我對攝影的興趣開始於15歲時擁有第一台數位相機。它融合了我早期對繪畫的熱情,但稍微有點不同,因為當你使用相機時,這個過程已按計畫進行;而當你用相機拍攝一張照片時,這個過程在按下快門後即結束。因此,我認為攝影與身處正確的地點和時間較有關係,我認為任何人都可以做到這一點。

 

所以我想創造某些不同的東西,某些當你按下快門後整個過程才開始的東西。像這樣的照片-一條繁忙道路旁進行的建設工程,但其中有一個意想不到的扭曲處,儘管如此,它保留了某種程度的真實;或像這些照片-它們既陰暗又多彩,但都有一個共同目標,即保留某種程度的真實。當我說真實時,我的意思是照相上的真實,因為,當然,這不是某種你真的可以捕捉的東西,但我總希望使它看起來像某種似乎可被捕捉成相片的東西,某種你需要短暫思考才能瞭解其中巧妙處的相片。因此,它更像是捕捉一個想法,而非捕捉一個真實時刻。

 

但什麼技巧使它看起來真實?是某些與細節或顏色有關的東西嗎?是某些與光有關的東西嗎?是什麼創造了這種錯覺?有時觀察角度就是造成錯覺的原因,但最終,它與我們如何理解這個世界有關,如何在一個二維表面上理解它。這不是真正所謂的真實,只是我們認為它看起來是真實的。

 

所以我認為,基本原理十分簡單,我只是將它視為一幅真實的拼圖,你可以採取不同的真實部分,將它拼湊在一起,創造另一個真實。我讓你們看一個簡單例子,這是三個相當容易想像的物體-某種我們都能以三維空間理解的物體,但以特定方式結合後,它們可以創造某種看起來依然是三維、似乎可能存在的東西,但我們同時知道它不可能存在。因此我們欺騙了大腦,因為我們的大腦無法接受它並不真的合理這個事實。我在合成照片的經驗中看到同樣的過程,事實上這只是結合不同的實際情況。

 

所以讓照片看起來真實的東西,我認為是我們甚至不曾想過的東西,這些日常生活中環繞在我們身邊的事物。但合成照片時,思索這一點非常重要,否則照片怎麼看都不對勁。所以我想說的是,我們得遵循三個簡單原則,才能得到真實的結果。如你們所見,這些照片並非相當特別,但合成之後,它們可以創造出像這樣景觀。

 

因此,第一個原則是,合成的照片應有相同的視角;其次,合成的照片應有相同類型的光線;這兩張相片都滿足這兩項要求-在相同高度、相同類型的光線下拍攝;第三點是使人們無法分辨不同影像間的起始處,使它沒有接縫,讓它無法顯示出相片是如何合成的。因此,藉由使不同影像交界處的顏色、對比度和亮度一致,加上攝影缺陷,例如景深、色彩不飽和度和雜質,我們抹去不同影像間的邊界,使它看起來像單一影像-儘管這個單一影像基本上可能包含了數百個圖層。

 

所以這是另一個例子。(笑聲)。有人可能會認為這只是一張風景照,底下部份是合成的,但事實上這張照片完全由攝於不同地點的照片合成。我個人認為,創造一個地點比找一個地點容易,因為這樣你就不必與腦海裡的想法進行妥協,但確實需要詳盡的規劃。我在冬季時得到這個想法,我知道我有幾個月時間來進行規劃,尋找不同地點,做為合成這幅拼圖的碎片。因此,例如,這隻魚是在一次釣魚之旅中捕獲的,海岸來自不同地點,水下部分來自一座採石場,沒錯,我甚至將島上的屋子改成紅色,使它看起來更具瑞典風味。

 

因此,要得到真實的結果,我認為主要在於規劃,這一向是從草圖、從一個想法開始,然後結合不同的照片,每一部份都經過良好規劃。如果你能將照片拍好,結果可能相當漂亮也相當真實。因此,我們擁有足夠的工具,唯一能限制我們的是我們的想像力。

 

謝謝。

 

(掌聲)

 

以下為系統擷取之英文原文

About this Talk

Erik Johansson creates realistic photos of impossible scenes -- capturing ideas, not moments. In this witty how-to, the Photoshop wizard describes the principles he uses to make these fantastical scenarios come to life, while keeping them visually plausible.

About the Speaker

Photographer Erik Johannson creates impossible but photorealistic images that capture an idea, not a moment. Full bio »

Transcript

I'm here to share my photography. Or is it photography? Because, of course, this is a photograph that you can't take with your camera.

Yet, my interest in photography started as I got my first digital camera at the age of 15. It mixed with my earlier passion for drawing, but it was a bit different, because using the camera, the process was in the planning instead. And when you take a photograph with a camera, the process ends when you press the trigger. So to me it felt like photography was more about being at the right place and the right time. I felt like anyone could do that.

So I wanted to create something different, something where the process starts when you press the trigger. Photos like this: construction going on along a busy road. But it has an unexpected twist. And despite that, it retains a level of realism. Or photos like these -- both dark and colorful, but all with a common goal of retaining the level of realism. When I say realism, I mean photo-realism. Because, of course, it's not something you can capture really, but I always want it to look like it could have been captured somehow as a photograph. Photos where you will need a brief moment to think to figure out the trick. So it's more about capturing an idea than about capturing a moment really.

But what's the trick that makes it look realistic? Is it something about the details or the colors? Is it something about the light? What creates the illusion? Sometimes the perspective is the illusion. But in the end, it comes down to how we interpret the world and how it can be realized on a two-dimensional surface. It's not really what is realistic, it's what we think looks realistic really.

So I think the basics are quite simple. I just see it as a puzzle of reality where you can take different pieces of reality and put it together to create alternate reality. And let me show you a simple example. Here we have three perfectly imaginable physical objects, something we all can relate to living in a three-dimensional world. But combined in a certain way, they can create something that still looks three-dimensional, like it could exist. But at the same time, we know it can't. So we trick our brains, because our brain simply doesn't accept the fact that it doesn't really make sense. And I see the same process with combining photographs. It's just really about combining different realities.

So the things that make a photograph look realistic, I think it's the things that we don't even think about, the things all around us in our daily lives. But when combining photographs, this is really important to consider, because otherwise it just looks wrong somehow. So I would like to say that there are three simple rules to follow to achieve a realistic result. As you can see, these images aren't really special. But combined, they can create something like this.

So the first rule is that photos combined should have the same perspective. Secondly, photos combined should have the same type of light. And these two images both fulfill these two requirements -- shot at the same height and in the same type of light. The third one is about making it impossible to distinguish where the different images begin and end by making it seamless. Make it impossible to say how the image actually was composed. So by matching color, contrast and brightness in the borders between the different images, adding photographic defects like depth of field, desaturated colors and noise, we erase the borders between the different images and make it look like one single image, despite the fact that one image can contain hundreds of layers basically.

So here's another example. (Laughter) One might think that this is just an image of a landscape and the lower part is what's manipulated. But this image is actually entirely composed of photographs from different locations. I personally think that it's easier to actually create a place than to find a place, because then you don't need to compromise with the ideas in your head. But it does require a lot of planning. And getting this idea during winter, I knew that I had several months to plan it, to find the different locations for the pieces of the puzzle basically. So for example, the fish was captured on a fishing trip. The shores are from a different location. The underwater part was captured in a stone pit. And yeah, I even turned the house on top of the island red to make it look more Swedish.

So to achieve a realistic result, I think it comes down to planning. It always starts with a sketch, an idea. Then it's about combining the different photographs. And here every piece is very well planned. And if you do a good job capturing the photos, the result can be quite beautiful and also quite realistic. So all the tools are out there, and the only thing that limits us is our imagination.

Thank you.

(Applause)
 


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