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課程來源:TED
     

 

Philip Zimbardo 談男性的衰落?

Philip Zimbardo: The demise of guys?

 

Photo of three lions hunting on the Serengeti.

講者:Philip Zimbardo

2011年3月演講,2011年8月在TED2011上線

 

翻譯:TED

編輯:朱學恆、洪曉慧

簡繁轉換:洪曉慧

後製:洪曉慧

字幕影片後制:謝旻均

 

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關於這場演講

心理學家Philip Zimbardo提出一個問題:「為什麼男孩陷入掙扎的困境?」他分享了一些數據(較低的畢業率、對親密關係有更多的擔憂),提出幾個可能原因-並呼籲TED聽眾共同思考解決方案。

 

關於Philip Zimbardo

Philip Zimbardo是引人爭議的1971年史丹佛監獄實驗領導者及Abu Ghraib監獄虐囚案專家證人。他的著作《路西法效應》探討邪惡的本質;他目前的新作品研究的是英雄主義的本質。

 

為什麼要聽他演講

Philip Zimbardo瞭解邪惡的面貌。在Abu Ghraib監獄虐囚案審判中擔任專家證人之後,他寫了《路西法效應:好人如何變成惡魔》這本書。從納粹漫畫書到二手車推銷員的戰術,他對多種研究題材進行探討,試圖解釋邪惡的心理。

 

Zimbardo曾擔任美國心理協會主席及史丹福大學榮譽教授,在長達50年的傳奇心理學入門課程教學生涯後,於2008年退休。除了闡述邪惡及英雄主義的著作之外,Zimbardo最近出版了《時間悖論》一書,探討不同文化和個人對時間的觀點。

 

Zimbardo以引人爭議的史丹佛監獄實驗聞名,他的新研究為探索英雄主義心理。他問道,「是什麼促使一些人成為邪惡的罪犯,卻使某些人為了需要幫助者而表現出英勇行為?」

 

「Philip Zimbardo教授揭露並照亮人類靈魂的黑暗面及不為人知的角落,值得我們衷心感謝。」

-捷克共和國前總統Václav Havel

 

Philip Zimbardo的英語網上資料

Website: Philip Zimbardo's homepage

Website: EverydayHeroism.org

Website: The Stanford Prison Experiment

Website: Shyness

Book: The Time Paradox

Book: The Lucifer Effect

Book: Violence Workers

Book: Shyness: What It Is, What to Do About It

Book: The Psychology of Attitude Change

Q&A: Heroes: Too hard for science?

 

[TED科技‧娛樂‧設計]

已有中譯字幕的TED影片目錄(繁體)(簡體)。請注意繁簡目錄是不一樣的。

 

Philip Zimbardo 談男性的衰落?

今天我想請大家思考一下男性的衰落。男性的學業成績每況愈下,他們與女孩的交往及與女性的性關係都逐漸衰退,除此之外,倒沒什麼大問題。數據是怎麼說的呢?男孩的失學率高得驚人,男孩中途退學的可能性比女孩多30%。在加拿大,男女學生的輟學比例是五比三。從小學到研究所,女孩在各階段的表現都勝過男孩。獲得學士及所有研究所學位的人數,男性比女性少10%。在特殊教育矯正課程中,三分之二的學生是男生。正如大家所知,男孩被診斷為注意力缺乏症(過動症)的機率是女孩的五倍,因此我們讓他們服用利他能。

 

顯示男性衰落的證據為何?首先,男性出現一種對親密關係的新恐懼。親密意味著與他人在身體上和感情上的密切關係,特別是與異性之間。異性會發出一種模糊、矛盾、如磷光般的信號。(笑聲)每年都會進行一個研究,調查大學生自認害羞的比例,我們發現其中男性的比例持續升高。害羞可分為兩類。害羞是一種社交不自在感,最初是一種對被拒絕的恐懼。這種社交不自在感就像一位身處異國的陌生人,不知道該說什麼、該做什麼,特別是與異性一對一交流的時候。他們不懂如何使用臉部表情語言,還有讓自己與他人自在交談及傾聽的無聲與有聲交流規則。

 

我正在研究一個所謂「社交強度症候群」的概念,試圖解釋為什麼男性更偏好與兄弟們聯繫感情,而非與女性交往。研究結果顯示,從童年早期開始,男孩,之後是男人,更偏愛與其他男性做伴,聚在同一個物理空間裡。我們確實觀察到當男性與男性在一起時,大腦皮質呈興奮狀態。在球隊、俱樂部、群體及兄弟會中,特別是在軍隊裡,還有酒吧裡。這種興奮在超級盃周日賽中達到高峰,那時男性更樂意與一群陌生人擠在酒吧裡,看綠灣包裝工隊從頭包到腳的Aaron Rodgers,而非臥室裡一絲不掛的珍妮佛‧羅培茲。問題是,現在男性更偏愛與現實脫節的網路世界,而非在社交關係中即時的互動。

 

為什麼會這樣呢?嗯,這是一個意料之外的結果,我認為原因在於過度使用網路、電子遊戲,還有過量獲得色情影片的新途徑。問題在於,這些都屬於興奮成癮。藥物成癮只是讓你想獲得更多藥物,興奮成癮則讓你想獲得不同的體驗。藥物成癮,你想要的是更多同樣的東西-這是不同的。所以你需要新奇的東西來保持這種興奮感。

 

問題在於,相關產業不斷供應這種需求。Jane McGonigal去年告訴我們,當一位男孩到了21歲時,他已經玩了一萬小時的電子遊戲,大多是獨自一人進行。記得嗎?Cindy Gallop說過,男人不懂做愛與看色情片之間的區別。目前每個男孩平均每週觀賞50部色情短片,當然,也有些男孩每週看一百部。(笑聲)色情產業是美國成長最快的產業,每年營利150億美元,好萊塢每製作400部電影,就有11000部色情片被製作出來。

 

這個結果是,非常迅速地提供成癮者一種新的興奮源,男孩的大腦被一種全新的方式數位化重組,為了尋求變化、新鮮、刺激與不斷的興奮感。這意味著他們完全脫離了傳統類型,那就是模擬、靜態、被動的互動方式。他們也完全脫離了逐步巧妙構建的浪漫男女關係。

 

有什麼解決方法?這就不是我的工作了,我只是來這裡提醒大家,想辦法解決是你們的工作。

 

(笑聲)

 

(掌聲)

 

但誰該關心這個問題?應該關心這個問題的人,包括男孩與女孩的父母、教育者、遊戲製作者、電影製作人,以及希望得到一位真正男人的女性。可以彼此交談、共舞、放慢腳步做愛,並對演化壓力有所貢獻,讓人類這個物種不至於落到香蕉蛞蝓那個層次。我無意冒犯飼養香蕉蛞蝓的人們,謝謝。

 

(掌聲)

 

以下為系統擷取之英文原文

About this Talk

Psychologist Philip Zimbardo asks, "Why are boys struggling?" He shares some stats (lower graduation rates, greater worries about intimacy and relationships) and suggests a few reasons -- and challenges the TED community to think about solutions.

About the Speaker

Philip Zimbardo was the leader of the notorious 1971 Stanford Prison Experiment -- and an expert witness at Abu Ghraib. His book The Lucifer Effect explores the nature of evil; now, in his new work,… Full bio and more links

Transcript

So today, I want us to reflect on the demise of guys. Guys are flaming out academically; they're wiping out socially with girls and sexually with women. Other than that, there's not much of a problem. So what's the data? So the data on dropping out is amazing. Boys are 30 percent more likely than girls to drop out of school. In Canada, five boys drop out for every three girls. Girls outperform boys now at every level, from elementary school to graduate school. There's a 10 percent differential between getting BA's and all graduate programs, with guys falling behind girls. Two-thirds of students in special ed remedial programs are guys. And as you all know, boys are five times more likely than girls to be labeled as having attention deficit disorder -- and therefore we drug them with Ritalin.

What's the evidence of wiping out? First, it's a new fear of intimacy. Intimacy means physical, emotional connection with somebody else -- and especially with somebody of the opposite sex who gives off ambiguous, contradictory, phosphorescent signals. (Laughter) And every year there's research done on self-reported shyness among college students. And we're seeing a steady increase among males. And this is two kinds. It's a social awkwardness. The old shyness was a fear of rejection. It's a social awkwardness like you're a stranger in a foreign land. They don't know what to say, they don't know what to do, especially one-on-one opposite sex. They don't know the language of face contact, the non-verbal and verbal set of rules that enable you to comfortably talk to somebody else, listen to somebody else.

There's something I'm developing here called social intensity syndrome, which tries to account for why guys really prefer male bonding over female mating. It turns out, from earliest childhood, boys, and then men, prefer the company of guys -- physical company. And there's actually a cortical arousal we're looking at, because guys have been with guys in teams, in clubs, in gangs, in fraternities, especially in the military, and then in pubs. And this peaks at Super Bowl Sunday when guys would rather be in a bar with strangers, watching a totally overdressed Aaron Rodgers of the Green Bay Packers, rather than Jennifer Lopez totally naked in the bedroom. The problem is they now prefer asynchronistic Internet world to the spontaneous interaction in social relationships.

What are the causes? Well, it's an unintended consequence. I think it's excessive Internet use in general, excessive video gaming, excessive new access to pornography. The problem is these are arousal addictions. Drug addiction, you simply want more. Arousal addiction, you want different. Drugs, you want more of the same -- different. So you need the novelty in order for the arousal to be sustained.

And the problem is the industry is supplying it. Jane McGonigal told us last year that by the time a boy is 21, he's played 10,000 hours of video games, most of that in isolation. As you remember, Cindy Gallop said men don't know the difference between making love and doing porn. The average boy now watches 50 porn video clips a week. And there's some guy watching a hundred, obviously. (Laughter) And the porn industry is the fastest growing industry in America -- 15 billion annually. For every 400 movies made in Hollywood, there are 11,000 now made porn videos.

So the effect, very quickly, is it's a new kind of arousal. Boys' brains are being digitally rewired in a totally new way for change, novelty, excitement and constant arousal. That means they're totally out of sync in traditional classes, which are analog, static, interactively passive. They're also totally out of sync in romantic relationships, which build gradually and subtly.

So what's the solution? It's not my job. I'm here to alarm. It's your job to solve.

(Laughter)

(Applause)

But who should care? The only people who should care about this is parents of boys and girls, educators, gamers, filmmakers and women who would like a real man who they can talk to, who can dance, who can make love slowly and contribute to the evolutionary pressures to keep our species above banana slugs. No offense to banana slug owners. Thank you.

(Applause)
 


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非常有意思

Anonymous, 2011-12-01 23:08:53
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COOL
Anonymous, 2011-11-29 14:04:25

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